TOPIC 3: HEALTH AND IMMUNITY | BIOLOGY FORM 1

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HEALTH AND IMMUNITY

Health

Is a state of physical, mental and social well – being.

OR

Is a general condition of the body, mind in which a person is free from disease, injury, damage or pain.

OR

Is a state of being physically, mentally and socially well.

– Health is not merely the absence of diseases.

 

There are two states of health

(a)    Good health

(b)    Poor health

 

Good health

I s a state of the body to be free from diseases, injury or pain

 

Poor health

Is a state in which a person is often attacked by diseases, pain or injury.

 

Pathogens

Are organisms which cause diseases.

Example – Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms and viruses

 

IMMUNITY

Is the ability of the body to resist against infection.

Or

Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells and cancer cells.

– Immunity is made possible by the immune system.

– The human immune system consists of white blood cells, the lymphatic system, sleep, thymus, skin and the bone marrow.

– The scientific study of immune system is called immunology

 

TYPES OF IMMUNITY

There are two types of immunity;

(a)    Natural immunity

(b)    Artificial immunity

(a) NATURAL IMMUNITY

Is a type of immunity that a person is born with.

– This immunity is inborn and exists even before the body is exposed to pathogens and it is permanent.

– It can also result from natural exposure to antigen.

– It is the inherited ability of the body to remain resistant or unaffected by a specific disease.

 

(b) ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

Is a type of immunity that individual acquire through immunization or vaccination.

– This is a type of immunity that occurs when a person’s immune system is induced to produce an immune response.

– Artificial immunity is that which an individual acquires during his/her life time.

– It is called artificial immunity because it is not produced naturally by the body

IMMUNIZATION

Is the process of introducing a vaccine into the body of an animal in order to produce antibodies.

– Immunization is also called vaccination or inoculation.

VACCINE

Is a preparation containing inactivated or weakened disease – causing organisms such as bacteria or viruses

– Vaccine are introduced in the body either orally or by injection to stimulate the production of antibodies by the immune system.

Natural or artificial immunity can either be active or passive

Active immunity

This involves inducing the body to produce its own antibodies to fight an infection.

– It take a long time to be activities but provide long-lasting protection. It involves memory cells which recognize an infection if it recurs.

Passive immunity

Is a type of immunity that is acquired when antibodies are produced by one person and then transferred to another person.

– This provides instant but short – lived protection.

 

TYPES OF NATURAL IMMUNITY

Natural immunity can be divided into;

(i)    Natural active immunity

(ii)    Natural passive immunity

(i)    Natural active immunity

Is a type of immunity that develops a result of the body being exposed to pathogens or toxins.

– After infection, antibodies are produced in the body.

– When the pathogens enter the body they may directly attack the body or produce poisons called toxins

– Then the body detects the pathogens or their toxins and produce chemicals (antibodies) to fight back

 

ANTIGENS

Are foreign substance that enters the body. E.g. pathogens and their toxins.

TOXINS

Are poisons that produced by the pathogens.

ANTIBODIES

Are chemical substances produced by the body to fight against antigens.

– Antibodies are specific to fight specific antigens.

For example, if a person catches measles, the body develops antibodies against the measles. In the future the body will produce the same antibodies if it is attacked again by the measles pathogens.

(ii)    Natural passive immunity

Is a type of immunity that develop when a mother passes antibodies to her baby during pregnancy and breast feeding.

– This immunity lasts for a few weeks or months during which time the baby’s own immunity develops.

 

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

There are two types of artificial immunity:

(i) Artificial active immunity

(ii) Artificial passive immunity

(i) Artificial active immunity

Is a type of immunity that is acquired through immunization or vaccination using vaccines.

– When the person is immunized or Vaccinated using vaccines, the vaccine causes the body to produce antibodies as if it was being attacked by the real antigens  Some of the body’s cells that make the immune system response remain as memory cells which can rapidly reproduce themselves is a real infection occurs.

– This type of immunity is the one that is passed on during the routine immunization of infants and children. The incidence of disease such as measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, yellow fever, chicken pox and polio have been greatly reduced due to vaccination.

Example

When vaccine against measles is injected to the body it produces antibodies rapidly.

(ii) Artificial passive immunity;

Is a type of immunity that is acquired when an individual receives readymade antibodies.

– Such type of antibodies are usually produced by other organism and given to individual through injection.

Example of artificial passive immunity

– Vaccination against snake bites and tetanus.

Advantages of Active immunity

– Provides a long- lasting protection

Disadvantages of Active immunity

-It takes a long time to be activated

Advantages of passive immunity

– Provides instant protection

Disadvantages of passive immunity

– Provides short – lived protection

 

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE BODY IMMUNITY

(i)    Age

(ii)    Extreme Stress

(iii)    Bad lifestyle

(iv)    Incomplete treatments

(v)    Damage to the skin

(vi)    Lack of proper nutrition

(vii)    Lack of vaccination

(viii)    Diseases and Genetic disorders

(ix)    Attack by pathogen

 

(i)    Lack of vaccination

If a person is not vaccinated against some disease, there is a higher chance of getting infected. For example, a child who is not vaccinated against measles gets the infection easily if there is an outbreak. Once a person gets a disease, it is too late to vaccine against it.

(ii)    Genetic disorders

Some people are born with conditions that affect their immunity. For example albinos have a skin that is less resistance to harmful rays from the sun compared to normal skin. Hence albinos have a higher risk of getting skin cancer.

(iii)    Incomplete treatment

If a sick person does not take a complete dose of treatment for an infection or disease, this may affect immunity. This is because the disease-causing microorganisms are not completely destroyed and could therefore be re activated easily, causing the infection or disease to recur.

(iv)    Attack by pathogens

Some pathogens such as HIV destroy white blood cells which are important part of the immune system. This makes the body more susceptible to infections.

(v)    Extreme stress

Studies have shown that people under very stressful conditions, often have low immunity and therefore get infections easily compared to non-stressed people.

(vi)    Damage to the skin

The skin acts as a barrier, preventing microorganisms from entering the body. When the skin is damaged, for example due to severe burns or numerous cuts, this barrier becomes weak. Disease – causing organisms can therefore enter the body more as easily.

(vii)    Poor nutrition

Some nutrients are partly used in manufacturing white blood cells and antibodies which defend the body against diseases. Therefore, improper intake of some nutrients may result the immunity to be weak.

(viii)    Poor personal hygiene

Poor person hygiene and poor environmental sanitation lead to environmental frequent illness hence over working the immune system.

(ix)    Bad life style

Bad lifestyle such as cigarette, smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse and having many sexual partners may weaken body immunity.

(x)    Age

Children under 5 years and people above 60 years have lower immunity to some diseases such as malaria and flu

(xi)    Exposure to harmful chemicals and radiation

Certain type of chemical and radiation affect the body immunity when a person becomes exposed to them for example x- rays destroy and kill the body cells.

 

THE NATURAL BODY DEFENCE SYSTEM

The human body has natural defense systems that either prevent microorganisms from entering the body or combat them when they manage to enter the body.

These are:

(i)    Skin

(ii)    Eyes

(iii)    Ears

(iv)    Digestive system

(v)    Blood

(vi)    Respiratory tract

(i)    SKIN

Intact skin is a physical barrier against entry of pathogens. Sweat glands in the skin produce sweat, which contains antibacterial agents that kill bacteria. Sebaceous glands of the skin produce oily substance called sebum which contains antibacterial agents that kills bacteria on the skin.

(ii)    EYES

Tear glands found in the upper eyelids produce tear. Tears contain enzymes which kill microorganisms and protect the eyeball from infection. Eye lashes, eyelids and eyebrows prevent dust particles and other foreign bodies from entering the eyes.

(iii) EARS

The lining of the ear canal produces waxy material which traps bacteria, viruses and small dust particles.

(iv)    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva, which is a mild antibacterial agent.

Hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach walls also destroys and kills most bacteria

taken in with food. Digestive juices produced in the small intestine digest and kill the bacteria in the intestine.

(v)    BLOOD

Blood comprises of lymphocytes and phagocytes. The lymphocytes produce antibodies that destroy pathogens. The phagocytes engulf microorganisms invading the body, thus defending the body against disease – causing organisms.

(vi)    RESPIRATORY TRACT

Mucous secreting cells in the respiratory tract produce mucus which traps microorganisms and small dust particles. The respiratory tract such as trachea have hairs called cilia and mucus which trap and fitter dust and microorganisms.

 

PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS

Personal hygiene

Is the practice of keeping the body, clothes and environment clean in order to maintain good health.

– Person hygiene skills are primarily emphasized to young people.

– Such skills include body cleanliness, and wearing clean clothes. As the individual grows personal hygiene responsibilities changes from self – help to helping others and maintaining their hygiene at family level and the surrounding community.

 

PRINCIPLES OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

(i)    Take bath twice every day.

(ii)    Brush teeth at least twice a day. In the morning and before going to bed.

(iii)    Always wear clean clothes

(iv)    Keep the environment clean. The environment includes bedroom, classroom and school.

(v)    Keep nails short and clean.

(vi)    Comb hair every day or keep it well plaited.

(vii)    Change bedding regularly.

(viii)    Wear comfortable and well-fitted clothes

(ix)    Do not spit on the ground. Spit onto a tissue paper.

(x)    Rinse the mouth with clean and safe water after eating.

(xi)    Avoid touching other’s body fluids such as blood, vomiting, urine and saliva with bare hands.

(xii)    Wash hands with soap and clean water after visiting the toilet and before eating.

(xiii)    Cover mouth and nose with a clean handkerchief or tissue when coughing or sneezing.

(xiv)    Do not share handkerchiefs, towels and clothes, especially underwear.

(xv)    Use a clean toilet for relieving yourself.

(xvi)    Make sure pets are kept clean. Keep pet litter out of the living room.

(xvii)    Avoid picking nose and biting nails

 

IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

(i)    It prevents diseases and maintains good health. Personal hygiene keeps away organisms that causes diseases.

(ii)    It provides better appearance and prevents body odour.

(iii) It increases self-confidence and enhances social acceptance.

(iv) It brings personal relaxation. After taking bath, someone feels comfortable and relaxed

 

GOOD MANNERS

Are behaviors that are socially acceptable.

– They include honesty, respect for others, politeness and helpfulness.

– These behaviours are also learnt throughout our lives from a tender age. Personal hygiene is also part of good social manners.

 

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD MANNERS

(i)    Maintain a good posture when sitting or standing.

(ii)    Speak in a clear voice. Do not shout

(iii)    Avoid risk behaviour and bad lifestyle. Example smoking, alcoholism and prostitution

(iv) Be respectful when you disagree with someone opinion.

(v)    Eat while sitting at a proper place

(vi)    Be helpful to other people. If possible give assistance to the needy.

(vii)    Admit a mistake and apologies.

(viii)    Greet people politely. If you were sitting stand up straight and if you were walking or running, then stand still.

(ix)    Express your feelings in a proper manner.

(x)    Dress properly according to the occasion and the social norms in your community.

(xi)    Say ‘please’ when requesting for something

(xii)    Say ‘thank you’ when given something or allowed to do something.

(xiii)    Chew when the mouth is closed.

(xiv)    Cover the mouth when coughing or yawning.

(xv)    Do not talk while eating.

(xvi)    Chew at reasonable pace.

(xvii)    Do not dominate conversation. Give other people a chance to talk.

(xviii)    Welcome visitors warmly. Introduce them to people they do not know.

(xix)    Do not use foul language.

(xx)    Be punctual when meeting or visiting someone.

(xxi)    Give up your seat to an elderly person, handicapped or pregnant and breastfeeding woman when on a crowded bus or train.

(xxii)    Serve yourself reasonable portions of food. Do not waste food.

(xxiii)    Avoid criticizing the food prepared by other people.

 

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD MANNERS

(i)    Makes a person more acceptable and respectable in the community.

(ii)    Promotes peace of mind. Thus, enabling people to concentrate on their works, studies and other activities

(iii)    Makes us good role models to other people in the community.

(iv)    Prevents one from getting choked while eating.

(v)    Maintains personality of an individual in the society.

(vi)    One becomes respected by others

(vii)    Maintains health of the body and mind

 

BAD MANNERS

Are behaviors that are not socially acceptable.

For example, Theft, telling lies, being rude and cruel, using foul language, fighting etc.

REQUIREMENTS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS

Items Uses
(i) Tooth brush and tooth paste – For brushing of teeth
(ii) Soap and clean water – For bathing and washing
(iii) Towels – For drying our body after bathing and washing hands
(iv) Nail cutter or razor blade

– For cutting nails of toes and

fingers

(v) Comb – For combing the hair
(vi) Clean clothes, shoes, shirts –
(vii) Scissors – For cutting long hairs
(viii) Handkerchief – F
(ix) Skin oil –

The following things can help us to maintain personal hygiene.

Requirements of good manners

The following things can help us to maintain good manner.

(i)    Be ready to receive advice from parents, teachers, elders and other people in the community. Good advice helps us to improve ourselves.

(ii)    Interact with peers and friends who practice proper personal hygiene and have good manners.

 

PERSONAL HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY

PUBERTY

Is the period when a boy or a girl show some changes in the body.

– It is a period when children begin to mature biologically, psychologically and socially and their bodies become capable of reproduction.

– Puberty usually occurs between age of 10 to 14 years for girls and 12 to 16 years for boys.

– During puberty, young girls and boys develop secondary sexual characteristics which create a distinct difference between males and females. Puberty leads to adolescence.

 

ADOLESCENCE

Is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood.

– Changes in the body that occur in boys and girls at puberty are called secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Secondary sexual characteristics and changes that occur in boys during puberty

The following are features that develop in boys at puberty:

(i)    Enlargement of testes and penis.

(ii)    Sperm production begins

(iii)    Widening of shoulders and chest.

(iv)    Development of hair under the armpits and pubic regions.

(v)    Growth of beards and facial pimples

(vi)    Wet dreams begins

(vii)    Development of muscular body.

(viii)    Development of deep voice.

(ix)    Sweat and oil glands become active leading to changes in body odors.

 

WAYS OF MAINTAINING PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY

The following are important measures in maintaining personal hygiene during puberty.

(i)    Bath at least twice per day.

(ii)    Wear clean clothes. Avoid wearing many clothes.

(iii)    Wear clean and dry under wears.

(iv)    Wash under wears regularly.

(v)    Shave beards and pubic hairs. This helps to prevent bad odour or infections.

(vi)    Clean genital organs thoroughly and dry them by clean towel while bathing.

(vii)    Girls should change the sanitary pads regularly when are in periods.

(viii)    Wash clothes and beddings regularly.

(ix)    Avoid sexual intercourse. This causes early pregnancy and transmission of diseases e.g. HIV.

(x)    Avoid peer pressure and emotions. By doing regular exercise, joining subject clubs and drama.

 

INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

INFECTION

Is the attack and growth of pathogens in the body of an organism. Pathogens

Are organisms that cause diseases.

– They include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa

– Pathogens enter the organism’s body through wounds, nose, mouth, genitals, animal bites and vectors.

– Infection may not necessarily cause diseases. This because the body immunity can attack pathogens before a disease develops.

– A person may be infected but may not be sick until some signs and symptoms appear.

Signs

Are those things that can be seen or measured.

Example of signs include:

– Blood in the stool

– Skin rashes

– High blood pressure

– High blood sugar

– Vomiting Symptoms

DISEASE

Is a condition that interferes with the health of the body.

– It can be caused by pathogens (infection), Body abnormalities, nutrient deficiencies, chemicals and radiations from the environment and hereditary factors.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFECTION AND DISEASES

INFECTION DISEASES
(i) Occurs when the pathogens invade or enter the body Occurs few hours or days after infection
(ii) It is not associate with signs and symptoms It occurs when the signs and symptoms occur

 

TYPES OF DISEASES

There are two main types of diseases, namely:

(a)    Non-communicable diseases

(b)    Communicable diseases

(a) NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one person to another.

– Non – communicable diseases may be caused by nutrient deficiency, environmental pollutants and genetic defects.

– Non – communicable diseases are also called non – infectious diseases Example of non – communicable diseases

– Nutritional deficiency diseases, such as kwashiorkor, beriberi, scurvy, night blindness

– Hereditary diseases such as albinism, sickle cell anemia, haemophilia

– Hormonal diseases such as Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes insipidus and cretinism.

– Environmental diseases such as Lung cancer, Asbestosis, Asthma, Coronary (heart) diseases.

(b) COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Are diseases that can spread from one person to another.

– Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and worms.

– Communicable diseases are also called Infections diseases or contagious diseases.

The Table below shows the pathogens and their associated communicable diseases;

PATHOGEN DISEASES
Viruses Measles, chickenpox, Ebola, rabies, polio, mumps, smallpox, common cold, influenza, AIDS and genital herpes.
Bacteria Tetanus, cholera, plague, leprosy, typhoid, diphtheria, tuberculosis (TB).
Protozoa Malaria, amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness,
Fungi Ringworm, candidiasis, athlete’s foot.
Worms Elephantiasis, ascariasis, taeniasis, schistosomiasis (bilharzia)

 

TYPES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Communicable diseases may be;

(i)    Epidemic

(ii)    Pandemic

(iii)Endemic

(i)    PANDEMIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that becomes wide spread in a large geographical area such as a continent or the whole world.

Example of pandemic diseases

– AIDS

– Influenza.

(ii)    EPIDEMIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that spreads quickly and affects a large number of people in a short period of time at a given locality.

Example of epidemic diseases

– Cholera

– Meningitis

– Plague.

– Rift valley fever (RVF)

– Tuberculosis

(iii) ENDEMIC DISEASES

Is a communicable disease that occur regularly in a particular place or in a given area constantly. Example of endemic disease

– Malaria

– Bilharzia

– Tuberculosis

– Gonorrhea

– Syphilis

– Typhoid

(iv) SPORADIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that occurs occasionally and at random intervals.

Example of sporadic diseases

– Ebola

– Rift valley fever

 

DISEASE TRANSMISSION

Is the spread of an infection from person to person or from vector to person.

Ways of diseases transmission

The pathogens or diseases can be spread or transmitted from one person to another through the following ways:

(i)    Through droplets

(ii)    Through contaminated water and food

(iii) Through sexual intercourse

(iv)    Through contact

(v)    Through vector

(vi)    Through blood

1. Through droplet

Secretions from an infected person are transferred from the nose or mouth onto the surfaces or hands by droplets produced when sneezing, spitting, coughing or speaking. Example of diseases spread by droplets are tuberculosis, COVID – 19 and flu or influenza.

2. Through contact

Some diseases such as scabies and measles may be spread from one individual to another through direct or indirect contact with infected skin, clothing, combs or dressings.

3. Through sexual intercourse

Some pathogens can be transmitted from an infected person to another through sexual intercourse. Examples are pathogens causing infections and diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B, genital herpes.

4. Through contaminated food and water

Some diseases like cholera, typhoid, amoebic dysentery and schistosomiasis are transmitted through contaminated water and food. Water and food can be contaminated by pathogens discharged in faeces, flies.

5. Through air

When a person sneezes or coughs without covering the mouth the pathogens are released into the air. If another person inhales that air, he/she will carry the pathogens into his/her body. Example of diseases transmitted through air are Tuberculosis, Influenza, whooping cough, chicken pox, Measles, common cold.

6. Through blood

Some infections occur when infected blood from an infected person enters the body of another person. This can be through transfusing infected blood, sharing sharp instruments like needles, razor blades, and scissors. Example of the diseases transmitted through blood are AID, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

7. Through vectors

Some pathogens are transmitted by organisms such as snails, Housefly, Mosquitoes, Tsetse fly, Rats, Lice fleas. Example of diseases transmitted by vectors are malaria, sleeping sickness, dengue fever and plague.

 

VECTORS

Are organisms that carry pathogens.

The table below shows pathogens and their corresponding vectors

VECTOR PATHOGEN DISEASE
Female anopheles mosquito Plasmodium Malaria
Tsetse fly Trypanosoma Sleeping sickness
Housefly Amoeba Dysentery
Housefly Vibrio cholerae Cholera
Snail Schistosoma Bilharzia

 

COMMON INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

The following are example of diseases and infections that are common in Tanzania and other countries in Africa.

– Tuberculosis

– Typhoid

– Cholera

– Malaria

– Bilharzia

– Plague

– Meningitis

 

THE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, MODE OF TRANSMISSION AND EFFECTS OF COMMON

INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

1. TUBERCULOSIS (TB)

Is a communicable and highly infectious disease

Causes

– It is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mode of Transmission

Tuberculosis can be transmitted through:

(i)    Droplets when coughing or sneezing

(ii)    Breathing infected air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

(iii)Breastfeeding with infected milk

 

Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis

(i)    Prolonged cough

(ii)    Blood stained sputum

(iii)    Night sweats

(iv)    Fever

(v)    Weight loss

(vi)    Poor appetite( lack of appetite)

(vii)    Lack of energy

NB: Sputum is a slippery fluid that comes out when one coughs.

 

Effects of tuberculosis

(i)    Lugh damage

(ii)    Kidney damage

(iii) Bone infection

(iv)    Hunch back

(v)    Damage to the immune system

(vi)    Death

Prevention/control measures of tuberculosis

(i)    Vaccination

(ii)    Patients should cover nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing

(iii) Avoid-crowded areas

(iv) Isolation of the patient from other family members (v) Medical treatment.

 

QUESTION

A middle man is regularly visiting the local traditional healer suspecting he has been bewitched. He has prolonged cough and is emitting stained sputum whenever he coughs. He cannot eat properly because he has poor appetite and suffers weight loss. He is surprised that he sweats a lot during the night.

(a) Name the possible disease a man is suffering from.

(b) What is the cause and how is it transmitted?

(c) What are the prevention method? Any three

 

2. TYPHOID

Causes

– It is caused by bacteria called salmonella typhi that mostly affect the intestine and stomach of the human being

Mode of Transmission of typhoid

The following are ways through which typhoid is transmitted or spread:

(i)    Through eating contaminated food

(ii)    Through drinking contaminated water or juices

(iii) Through vectors such as houseflies

(iv) Poor sanitation

Signs and symptoms of typhoid

Typhoid is characterized by the following signs and symptoms

(i)    Diarrhea

(ii)    Vomiting

(iii) Mild fever

(iv)    Abdominal pain

(v)    Headache

(vi)    Constipation (passing out hard stool)

Effects of typhoid

Typhoid may cause the following problems

(i)    Body weakness

(ii)    Abdominal pain

(iii) Kidney and bladder infection which result into kidney failure

Prevention/Control measures of typhoid

Typhoid can be controlled or prevented by:

(i)    Drinking clean and safe water

(ii)    Washing hands before eating and after visiting toilet

(iii)    Handling and preparing food in a hygienic condition

(iv)    Eating properly cooked food

(v)    Disposing faeces properly

(vi)    Covering food to prevent flies from reaching the food

(vii) Washing by using clean water Foods which are not cooked.

(viii)    Proper community sanitation and general cleanliness

(ix)    Medical treatment. Typhoid can be treated by using antibiotics such as chloramphenicol.

 

3. CHOLERA

Causes

– It is caused by bacteria called vibrio cholerae.

Mode of Transmission of cholera

The following are ways through which Cholera is transmitted

(i)    Through eating contaminated food

(ii)    Through drinking contaminated water

(iii) Poor sanitation

(iv) Through vectors such as houseflies

Signs and symptoms of cholera

A patient of cholera shows the following signs and symptoms:

(i)    Sunken eyes

(ii)    Severe watery diarrhoea

(iii)    Vomiting which looks like rice water

(iv)    General body weakness

(v)    Loss of weight (vi) Wrinkled skin

(vii)    Weak pulse

(viii)    Muscle cramps

Effects of cholera

Cholera causes the following problems

(i)    Body weakness

(ii)    Dehydration (Lack of water in the body)

(iii) Weight loss

(iv)    Kidney failure

(v)    Death

Prevention/control

Cholera can be prevented or controlled through observing the following

(i)    Washing hands after visiting the toilet

(ii)    Boiling or treating drinking water

(iii)    Washing hands with soap before eating

(iv)    Wash fruit and vegetables

(v)    Eating hot food

(vi)    Proper sanitation

(vii)    Improve personal hygiene

(viii)    Prepare the food in a hygienic way.

 

QUESTION

A group of students from Bidii secondary had a study visit to Bugando Hospital. They noticed a patient with sunken eyes, severe diarrhea, vomiting, weak pulse, wrinkled skin and muscle cramps. The laboratory procedure also revealed the presence of comma shaped bacterium in the patient’s stool.

(a)    What could be the possible disease the patient was suffering from?

(b)    What is the cause of the disease and how it is transmitted?

(c)    Suggest four (4) preventive measures of the disease you have in (a) above

 

4.    MALARIA

Is a communicable disease

Causes of malaria

Malaria is caused by protozoa called plasmodium.

Mode of Transmission of malaria

The following are ways through which malaria (plasmodium) can be transmitted:

(i)    Through vectors such as female anopheles mosquitoes

(ii)    Through blood transfusion

Signs and symptoms of malaria

(i)    Pain in the joints

(ii)    Chills

(iii)    Fever

(iv)    Sweating

(v)    Nausea and vomiting

(vi)    Headache

(vii)    Abdominal pain

(viii)    Lack of appetite

Effects of malaria

(i)    Anaemia (decreased red blood cells in the blood)

(ii)    Kidney failure

(iii) Liver damage

(iv)    Brain damage leading to mental problems

(v)    Death

Prevention/control measures of Malaria

Control and preventive measures of malaria aim at eradicating female anopheles mosquitoes or preventing mosquito bites as follow

(i)    Spraying oil in breeding sites

(ii)    Cutting long grasses around the house

(iii)    Draining stagnant water

(iv)    Sleeping under treated mosquito nets

(v)    Applying mosquito repellants

(vi)    Using windows with mosquito-proof wire meshes

(vii)    Wearing clothes that cover the whole body during the night studying

 

5.    CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID- 19)

Is a pandemic disease caused by the corona viruses that can trigger respiratory tract infection which may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Cause of COVID- 19

It is caused by corona virus -19

Mode of transmission of COVID-19 COVID-19 can be transmitted through:

– Inhaling droplets from an infected person. A person becomes infected through inhaling droplets from the nose or mouth which are expelled when infected person coughs, sneezes or speaks.

– Shaking hands with infected person. A person becomes infected when shakes hands with infected person.

– Touching contaminated objects and surfaces. A person can becomes infected by touching objects such as tables, doorknobs then touching his/her eyes, nose or mouth.

Sign and symptoms of COVID-19

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Headaches

(iii)    Dry cough

(iv)    Tiredness

(v)    Shortness of breath

(vi)    Joint aches and pain

(vii)    Loss of smell or taste

(viii)    Abdominal pain

(ix)    Diarrhoea

(x)    Vomiting

Note: Infected person may be asymptomatic

Asymptomatic (Pre –symptomatic) – means somebody that does not have symptoms.

Effects of COVID-19

(i)    Lung damage

(ii)    Blood clotting

(iii) Death

Prevention/Control measures of COVID-19

(i) Use hand sanitizers as often as possible

(ii)    Wear masks when going to public places

(iii)    Keep social distance. Stay at least 1 meter away from others.

(iv)    Isolation of patients

(v)    Avoid overcrowded places (avoid unnecessary gatherings).

(vi)    Frequently wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean running water. (vii) Avoid touching your eyes, mouth and nose.

 

6. BILHARZIA/SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Is a parasitic worm disease.

Causes of bilharzia

It is caused by a flatworm called Schistosoma haematobium or blood flukes

Mode of Transmission of bilharzia

The following is the main way through which bilharzia can be transmitted:

– Through water snails

– Through drinking contaminated water. When the infected person urinates or defeacates into water bodies, releases eggs into water.

Signs and symptoms of bilharzia

Bilharzia is characterized with the following signs and symptoms

(i)    Abdominal pain

(ii)    Blood stained faeces or urine

(iii)    Diarrhea

(iv)    Fever

(v)    Enlarged liver and spleen

(vi)    Tiredness

(vii)    Headache

(viii)    Coughing

(ix)    Painful urination

(x)    Itching in the urinary bladder and in the rectum.

Effects of Bilharzia

(i)    Swollen (enlarged) liver and spleen

(ii)    Intestinal damage

(iii)    Bladder damage

(iv)    Brain damage

(v)    Anaemia

(vi)    Liver damage

(vii)    Spleen damage

(viii)    Lung damage

(ix)    Spinal cord inflammation(damage)

(x)    Paralysis or seizures

Prevention/ Control measures of Bilharzia

(i)    Killing water snails with chemicals

(ii)    Avoiding swimming in untreated stagnant water

(iii)    Wearing protective shoes in water logged areas

(iv)    Proper disposal of sewage

(v)    Draining stagnant water

(vi)    Proper use of toilets and avoiding urinating in water bodies (vii) Medical treatment

 

7. PLAGUE

Causes

It is caused by bacteria called Yersinia pastis.

– This bacteria attack lymph nodes and therefore affect the activity of immune system

Mode of Transmission of Plague

– Plague is transmitted by fleas found on rats. A person is infected when bitten by infected fleas

Signs and symptoms of Plague

(i)    Inflammation (swollen) of lymph nodes

(ii)    High fever

(iii) Internal bleeding

(iv)    Body aches

(v)    Coughing

(vi)    Shortness of breath

Effects of plague

(i)    Destruction of immune system through attacking white blood cells

(ii)    Skin discoloration

(iii) Severe pain

(iv)    Anaemia

(v)    Pneumonia

(vi)    Death

Prevention/control of plague

(i)    Eliminating rats and fleas

(ii)    Keeping house clean

(iii) Leftovers should be kept in tight vessels to discourage rat in houses

(iv)    Vaccination

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

8.    MENINGITIS

Is the inflammation of membranes (meninges) which cover brain and spinal cord due to bacteria attack.

Causes of meningitis

It is caused by bacteria called Meningococcus sp

Mode of Transmission of Meningitis

– Meningitis spreads through droplets (air) when sneezing, coughing or kissing.

Signs and symptoms of Meningitis

(i)    Stiff neck

(ii)    Seizures of fits

(iii)    Delirium (Confusion)

(iv)    Severe headache

(v)    Sudden high fever

(vi)    Nausea

(vii)    Respiratory tract infection (Pneumonia)

(viii)    Coma (Loss of consciousness for a long time)

Note: Coma – is a state caused by serious illness or injury where a person is unconscious for a long time.

Effects of Meningitis

(i)    Brain damage

(ii)    Deafness (Loss of hearing)

(iii)    Poor coordination of movements

(iv)    Learning disabilities

(v)    Paralysis

(vi)    Death

(vii)    It led to seizures and mental problem in which people become scared of light and loud noises

Prevention of Meningitis

(i)    Isolating the infected person from others.

(ii)    Vaccination

(iii)Maintaining healthy habits like not smoking and avoiding cigarette smokes

(iv)    Getting plenty of rest

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

9.    SCABIES

Cause

– It is caused by microscopic mites

Mode of transmission of scabies

– Scabies spread by skin to skin contact.

– Through sharing clothing, towels and beddings

Signs and symptoms of scabies

(i)    Intense itching

(ii)    Rashes and burrows on the skin

(iii)Sores on the skin

Effects of scabies

(i)    Persistent skin rashes

(ii)    Damaged skin

(iii) Leads to secondary infections

Prevention/control measures of scabies

(i)    Good personal hygiene

(ii)    Wash contaminated clothes in hot water and dry them in the sun

(iii) Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, clothes or bedding

(iv)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

10.    RABIES

Causes

– Caused by rabies virus

Mode of transmission of rabies

Rabies is transmitted through

(i)    Scratches or bites from infected cats, dogs, jackals, humans or other animal

(ii)    Organ transplants from infected people

(iii) Direct contact of eyes, nose, and mouth with saliva of an infected animal

Signs and symptoms of rabies

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Pain at the site of bites

(iii)    Difficulty swallowing

(iv)    Restlessness

(v)    Muscles spasms

(vi)    Convulsions

(vii)    Loss of feeling

(viii)    Drooling

(ix)    Foaming at the mouth

Effects of rabies

(i)    Damage to the nervous system

(ii)    Brain damage

(iii) Paralysis

(iv)    Death

Prevention/control measures of rabies

(i)    Pets should be taken care

(ii)    Stay away from suspicious pets

(iii) When bitten by a dog or other animals report immediately to a nearby health care facility

(iv) Vaccination

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

STIs, STDs, and HIV/AIDS

The Definition of abbreviations

STIs stands for sexually Transmitted Infections

STDs stands for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

– These infections and diseases are called sexually transmitted because they are spread from one person to another mainly through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person.

STIs and STDs also can be transmitted: –

– Through blood transfusion

– Through sharing items like towels

– From a mother to the child Note: Not all STIs turn into STDs

– HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that causes AIDS through breaking down or destroying the immune system of the body.

– AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome people with AIDS get infections and diseases more easily because their immune system is weakened.

Common STIs and STDs

The following are common STs and STDs

(i)    Syphilis

(ii)    Gonorrhea

(iii)    Chlamydia

(iv)    Hepatitis B

(v)    Genital herpes (vi) Trichomonas’s

(vii)    Candidiasis

(viii)    AIDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.    GONORRHEA

This is an STD caused by bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoea. It affects parts of the body such as penis, vagina, anus, urethra and threat

Cause of gonorrhea

The causative agent of gonorrhea is Neisseria gonorrhea

Mode of transmission of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea can be spread from one person to another:

(i)    Through sexual intercourse

(ii)    Through sharing personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits (iii)From the infected mother to the child during birth.

Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea

(i)    Pain urination

(ii)    Yellowish discharge with foul smell from penis or vagina

(iii)    Abdominal pain

(iv)    Itching in the genital parts

(v)    Sore throat

(vi)    Irregular menstruation

(vii)    Retention of urine in males

(viii)    Rashes (sores) all over the body

Effects of gonorrhea

If gonorrhea remains untreated for a longtime, it may cause the following problems

(i)    Infertility (failure of a person to have children)

(ii)    Swollen and painful joints

(iii) Heart problems

(iv) Pain around pelvic area for women

Prevention/ Control measures of gonorrhea

(i)    Abstaining from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoiding sharing personal items such as towel, underwear, swimsuits, razor blades (iii)Seek immediate medical treatment

 

2.    SYPHILIS

This is a STD caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum which infects the vagina, anus, penis, lips and mouth.

Cause of syphilis

The causative agent of Syphilis is Treponema pallidum

Mode of Transmission of Syphilis

Syphilis can be spread from one person to another through the following ways: –

(i) Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Blood transfusion

(iii)    From the infected pregnant woman to the baby (fetus) during pregnancy

(iv)    Some bad practices such as oral sex and anal intercourse

Signs and symptoms of Syphilis

Syphilis goes through several stages after infection. Each stage has its own signs and symptoms as explained below:

Primary stage

This is the first stage that occurs between 3-4 weeks after infection

Signs and symptoms seen during stage one

(i)    Painless sore on sex organs like penis, vagina

(ii)    A sore called chancre on a part of the body which lasts for three to six weeks Note: Chancre is open, wet and painless and usually occurs on the vagina, penis, anus, breasts, lips or mouth

Secondary stage

This is the second stage that occurs between 8-14 weeks after infection.

– Signs and symptoms observed during this stage

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Skin rashes especially on the palms or soles of feet

(iii)    Swollen joint and joint pain

(iv)    Muscles pain

(v)    Loss of appetite

(vi)    Loss of weight

(vii)    Raised bumps on the skin

(viii) Swollen lymph nodes.

– The signs and symptoms explained above may come and go for two years

Late stage

This is the third stage that occurs 2 years after infection

– At this stage the individual is no longer infections

– If the diseases are treated it can be cured but if not, the diseases remain in the body for a long time (up to 20years)

– At this stage, the effects of syphilis are noticed such as brain damage, heart damage, poor eye sight and blindness bone changes and lastly death.

Effects of Syphilis

If syphilis is left untreated for many years the following problems result; – (i) Brain damage

(ii)    Nervous system damage

(iii)    Heart damage

(iv)    Poor sight and blindness due to eye damage

(v)    Bone changes/ Bone damage

(vi)    Stillbirth babies

(vii)    Mental retardation for babies

(viii)    Hearing problems

(ix)    Death

Prevention/Control of syphilis

(ii)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(iii)    Use screened blood for transfusion

(iii) Testing and treating pregnant women

(iv)    Avoid contact with skin sores especially with infected people

(v)    Avoid sharing of pants, towels or razor blades

(vi)    Medical treatment

 

3.    CHLAMYDIA

This is an STD Caused bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis Mode of transmission of chlamydia Chlamydia is spread through:

(i)    Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Infection from mother to child at birth

Signs and symptoms of chlamydia

(i)    Bleeding from the vagina after sexual intercourse

(ii)    Lower abdominal pain

(iii) Pain during urination

(iv) Smelly discharge from the penis or vagina

Effects of chlamydia

(i)    Infertility

(ii)    Complications in reproductive system for both males and females

(iii)    Chronic pelvic pain

(iv)    Blindness

(v)    Giving birth to premature babies

(vi)    Ectopic pregnancy

(vii)    Infected babies develop health problems like infection in the eyes, ears and lungs.

 

4.    HEPATITIS B

This is an STD that is caused by the virus called Hepatitis B virus that attacks the liver

Mode of transmission of hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is Transmitted through; –

(i) Sexual intercourse/sexual contact

(ii) Blood transfusion

(iii)Sharing sharp instruments like needles, syringes and razor blades

Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B

(i)    Tiredness

(ii)    Fever

(iii)    Jaundice (yellowish skin and eyes)

(iv)    Dark tea colored urine

(v)    Abdominal pain

(vi)    Nausea and vomiting

(vii)    Itching all over the body

(viii)    Pale-colored stool

Effects of hepatitis B

(i)    Liver damage

(ii)    Liver cancer

(iii)    Death

Prevention/control measures of hepatitis B

(i)    Abstaining from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Vaccination

(iii)    Avoiding sharing sharp tools like needles and razor

(iv)    Use screened blood for transfusion

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

5.    GENITAL HERPES

This is an STD caused by the virus called Herpes simplex. It affects areas like lining of the mouth, vagina, penis and anus and eyes.

Cause of genital herpes

The causative agent of genital herpes is Herpes simplex

Mode of transmission of genital herpes

Genital herpes can from one person to another through; –

(i) Sexual intercourse

(ii) Touching affected body parts or contaminated objects like razor blades and underwear

Signs and symptoms of genital herpes

(i)    Recurrent fever

(ii)    Ulcers or blisters around the penis or vagina

(iii) Pain in or around the sex organs

(iv)    Headache

(v)    Itching and failure to urinate when sores swell and block the urethra

Effects of genital herpes

(i)    Recurrent painful ulcers

(ii)    Death of babies born to infected mother

(iii) Leads to Stillbirth for pregnant woman

Prevention/control of genital herpes

There is no cure for genital herpes, but can be prevented by

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoiding sharing personal items like razor blades and underwear

(iii) Medical treatment for both partners even if one has no symptoms

 

6.    TRICHOMONIASIS

This is an STD that mostly affects the vagina in women and urethra in men.

Cause of Trichomoniasis

It is caused by a protozoan called Trichomonas vaginalis

Mode of Transmission of Trichomoniasis

(i)    Sexual intercourse with infected person

(ii)    Sharing personal items such as towel, underwear and swimsuits

Signs and symptoms of Trichomoniasis

The following are signs and symptoms shown by women

(i)    Frothy, smelly yellow green discharge from the vagina

(ii)    Vaginal itching

(iii) Pain when urinating

Note: Men usually do not show signs and symptoms. However, some men may have temporary irritation inside the penis, mild discharge and slight burning after urination.

Effects of Trichomoniasis

If not treated earlier, Trichomoniasis may result the following problems

(i) It causes babies to be born with low birth weight

(ii) It causes premature births

Prevention/control measures of Trichomoniasis

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoid unsafe sexual intercourse

(iii)Avoid sharing of personal items like towels, underwear and swimsuits (iv) Medical treatment for both partners even if one has no symptoms

 

7.    CANDIDIASIS

This is an STD caused by fungus called Candida sp

Mode of Transmission of Candidiasis

Candidiasis can be spread from one person to another through; –

(i) Unprotected sexual intercourse

(ii) Sharing personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits (iii)Poor personal hygiene

Signs and symptoms of Candidiasis

(i)    Thick white discharge from the vagina

(ii)    Vaginal itching

(iii)    Thick white patches in the mouth

(iv)    Inflammation of the glans of the penis

(v)    Skin rashes

Effects of Candidiasis

– Infection of the blood stream

Prevention/control measures of Candidiasis

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoid sexual contact with infected people

(iii) Do not share personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits

(iv)    Improve personal hygiene

(v)    Medical treatment

 

QUESTIONS

1.    Explain the meaning of sexually transmitted diseases

2.    Outline the causes, symptoms and effects of the following infections and diseases

(a)    Syphilis

(b)    Gonorrhoea

(c)    Candidiasis

(d)    Hepatitis B

 

HIV/AIDS

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

– This is a virus (retrovirus) that causes the immune system to lose its effici

causing AIDS.

– HIV is found usually in blood, however sometimes can be found in other body fluids like milk, Vaginal secretions, saliva and semen. Sweat, saliva and tears have very low amount of the virus, unless they contain blood.

– HIV attacks and kills the type of white blood cells called T-helper cells which are essential for immunity. After being infected with HIV, a person can remain asymptomatic for

years. The multiplication of HIV in the blood leads to massive destruction of helper-T cells. This weakens the immune system and the person develops opportunistic diseases.

OPPORTUNISTIC DISEASES

Are diseases that occur when the body immune system of an individual is weakened.

– Example of opportunistic diseases are:

(i)    Tuberculosis (TB)

(ii)    Severe diarrhoea

(iii)    Skin cancer

(iv)    Skin rashes

(v) Pneumonia

(vi) Kaposi’s sarcoma

AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

– People with AIDS are vulnerable to infections and diseases because their immune system is weakened.

– AIDS occurs when HIV positive individual develops symptoms. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.

Transmission of HIV

HIV can be spread through the following ways: –

(i)    Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Blood transfusion from infected donor)

(iii)    Sharing sharp instruments like razor blades, needles syringes piercing pins

(iv) Organ transplantation

(v) From an infected mother to the baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding

(vi) Using unsterilized instruments during surgery, circumcision or delivery.

(vii) Sharing personal items like toothbrushes, shaving blades or nail cutters with an infected person.

Note: HIV is not spread by casual contact such as hugging, shaking hands or touching unless both people have open wounds.

Symptoms and signs of HIV/AIDS

The signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS are divided into four stages as explained below;

(a)    Primary stage (window stage)

This stage is accompanied with flu-like illness. It occurs one to two months after infection.

– At this stage, the HIV increases rapidly in the body.

– At this stage, HIV test is negative and a person looks health.

– At primary stage,

the HIV infected person may experience some of the following symptoms:-

(i)    Sore throat

(ii)    Pain in the muscles and joints

(iii)    Mild fever

(iv)    Tiredness

(v)    Swelling of lymph nodes

(vi)    Rashes

(vii)    Headache

– The above symptoms will last for one to two weeks.

(b)    Asymptomatic stage

At this stage a person shows no signs or symptoms. A person looks healthy and HIV test is positive

(c)    Symptomatic stage

This stage is characterized by severe damage to the immune system.

– At this stage, a person’s health starts to become weak and some symptoms of AIDS are visible

Signs and symptoms experienced at symptomatic stage

(i)    Persistent fever (Fever that comes and go)

(ii)    Skin rashes

(iii) Sores in the mouth that come and go

(iv)    Tiredness and feeling un well

(v)    Infection in the airway that comes and go e.g. Pneumonia and TB

(vi) Weight loss

– Later the person’s body immunity decreases very much, therefore the person gets diseases which would normally be fought off by the immune called opportunistic infection.

– At this stage, the opportunistic infection can be treated and heal.

(d)    Full brown AIDS

This is the last stage of HIV infection

– At this stage, a person is said to suffer from AIDS Signs and symptoms of AIDS

(i)    Loss of body weight

(ii)    Persistent fever that lasts longer than a month

(iii)    Coughing for more than a month

(iv)    Diarrhea lasting longer than a month

(v)    Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits

(vi)    Itchy rashes on the skin

(vii)    Shortness of breath

(viii)    Genital rashes

(ix)    Vomiting

(x)    Painful sores in the mouth

(xi)    Loss of memory

(xii)    Confusion

(xiii)    Inability to see

(xiv)    Feeling of pins and needles (numbness) in the hands and feet.

(xv)    Shingles (painful skin rash, also called herpes zoster)

Effects of HIV/AIDS to a person

(i)    Chest infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis

(ii)    Brain infections leading to mental confusion

(iii) Stomach or gut infection leading to severe diarrhoea

(iv)    Skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma

(v)    Death

(vi)    Stigmatization

Effects of HIV/AIDS to the community

HIV/AIDS has affected people in the developing world to a large extent. A part from the painful illness and death, HIV/AIDS has the following effects to the community.

(i)    Reduced labour and production force

(ii)    Increased number of orphans, thus adding a burden to relatives and the society.

(iii) Families and government spend a lot of money to treat patients with HIV and AIDS

(iv)    Increased poverty

(v)    Reduces life expectancy

Prevention/control of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS has no cure, but can be prevented or controlled through the following ways; –

(i) Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Be faithful to only one sexual partner

(iii)    Use a condom during sexual intercourse

(iv)    Use sterilized instruments during surgery and delivery

(v)    Wear disposable gloves when touching people’s body fluids

(vi)    Use only screened blood and organs for transfusion and transplantation respectively (vii) Avoid sharing tooth brushes and sharp instruments like razor blades, needles.

(viii)    Give the anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) to the PLWHA so as to slow down the progression of the disease.

(ix)    Avoid risky behaviors that may put you in a danger of being infected e.g. Going to the night club alone or with the group of opposite sex, haring many sex partners, having bad peer groups drug abuse.

(x)    Avoid alcohol as it may affect your decision-making ability, hence dragging you into unsafe sex.

(xi)    Avoid smoking as it accelerates the speed of HIV infection.

Questions

1.    What are opportunistic infections?

2.    Explain how HIV is transmitted

3.    Explain seven ways through which HIV can be prevented

 

MANEGEMENT OF STIs, HIV AND AIDS

RISKY SITUATIONS, BEHAVIOURS AND PRACTICES

Risky behaviours: Are those behaviours that puts someone in danger of getting infected with

STDs and HIV. E.g. alcoholism, rape, drug abuse

Risky situations, practices: Are any situations or practices that puts someone in danger of getting infected with STDs and HIV.

Examples of risky situations, behaviors and practices that put us at a greater risk of being infected with STIs, STDs and HIV

(i)    Having many sexual partners

(ii)    Transfusion using unscreened blood

(iii)    Sharing personal items such as towels, underwear, swimsuits and toothbrushes

(iv) Sharing sharp instruments like razor blades, needles syringes.

(v)    Staying alone in isolated places or walking alone during the night. This increases the chance of being raped

(vi)    Staying in secluded places with members of opposite sex or strangers

(vii)    Using unsterilized instruments during circumcision delivery and surgery

(viii)    Having bad mannered friends or immoral friends. These pressure us into bad behaviors (ix) Having unprotected sexual intercourse.

(x)    Failing to report sexual abuse or rape

(xi)    Using alcohol as it impairers our decision making ability hence dragging us into unsafe sex.

(xii)    Drug abuse. Drug abusers tend to share syringes and needles

(xiii)    Accepting favours and gifts such as money, clothes and mobile phones from members of the opposite sex. These people may expect sexual favours in retain.

Ways of avoiding or preventing risky situations, risky behaviors and practices

(i) Abstain from sexual intercourse before marriage.

(ii)    Be faithful to one sexual partner after marriage or use a condom

(iii)    Use only screened blood for transfusion

(iv)    Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, underwear swimsuits and toothbrushes.

(v) Avoid sharing sharp tools like needles and razor blades

(vi) Never walk or stay alone in isolated places during night.

(vii) Avoid staying in isolated places with the company of opposite sex or strangers

(viii) Avoid taking alcohol.

(ix)    Avoid taking all forms of recreational drugs

(x)    Keep good company and avoid immoral friends

(xi)    Do not accept gifts or favours from members of the opposite sex

(xii)    Report all cases of sexual abuse, for example rape to a trusted person and to the police (xiii) Avoid risky places such as bars, night clubs and casinos.

Necessary skills for avoiding risky behaviors, practices and situations

It can be difficult to avoid risky situations, behaviors and practices without having some skills.

 

The following are the necessary skills needed to avoid risky situations, behaviours and practices

(i)    Quickly recognize the risky situations

(ii)    Occupy yourself with positive activities

(iii) Be confident and strong

(iv) Learn to assert yourself

(i)    Quickly recognize the risky situations

Survey the environment you are in and identify any risks. For example, be alert when a friend of opposite sex insists that you should go to his/her room when you are alone or you should talk in isolated place or accept a drink from a person you don’t know. Also learn the environment to see if there is any danger like bhang smokers’ drunkards and take action.

(ii)    Be confident and strong

Do not easily get influenced if a person pressures you. Feel sure about yourself and believe that you can do something yourself successfully. Avoid risk situations or practices by having a few numbers of friends who are well mannered, avoid watching sex movies or staying with bad mannered friends.

(iii) Occupy yourself with positive activities.

Do not stay idol, engage yourself in activities such as sports, gardening, jogging and reading. This will relax your mind, improve your health and prevent you from engaging yourself in risky situation, behaviors and practices.

(iv) Learn to assert yourself.

Listen to the requester without interrupting and say a firm “NO” even if it means to lose a friend or service. If the requester does not want to accept your answer, tell him/her that you will not change your mind. You do not need to explain any reason, just say no.

– Importance of curative health care for STIs, STDs or HIV/ADS and opportunistic diseases AIDS has neither a vaccine nor cure so far, However, opportunistic diseases associated with it and some STDs can be treated and cured. Therefore,

 

People who suspect that they have STIs, STDs or HIV/AIDS should seek medical care as soon as possible for the following reasons.

(i)    Early testing and treatment help to treat or slow down the development of the infection or disease in its early stages.

(ii)    Proper treatment can save life and prevent long-term effects such as infertility

(iii)    Health care professionals can give appropriate counselling on how to manage the infections and diseases and how to avoid re-infection.

(iv)    Testing gives peace of mind. It can confirm whether one is infected or not, instead of worrying and guessing what the problem could be.

(v)    Proper health care reduces the chances of infecting other people

(vi)    If you are found HIV positive, at some stage you will be given with Anti-Retro Viral Drugs (ARVs) so as to slow down the advancement of the condition

(vii)    Treating opportunistic diseases relieves suffering and pain and prolongs life.

(viii)    Healthcare professionals can give appropriate guidance on how to enhance good health practices in order to prevent further infections and damages. These practices may include: proper nutrition, abstaining from sexual intercourse and doing regular exercise.

 

PLWHA stands for People Living with HIV and AIDS

CARE AND SUPPORT FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)

People living with HIV and AIDS can live healthy lives for a long time if they get proper care and support. But also, people with HIV/AIDS are normally very weak and helpless, therefore we should give them special care and support as follows;

(i)    Giving them a balanced diet

(ii)    Allowing them to rest when they feel unwell

(iii)    Taking them to the health center as soon as they start development signs of illness.

(iv)    Keeping their rooms and environment clean

(v)    Make them as comfortable as possible by keeping their beddings clean and dry.

(vi)    Try to relieve any pain they may be feeling by giving them pain relievers (pain killers)

(vii)    Spend time with them, don’t leave them alone for a long time

(viii)    Behaving in loving way towards them and not judgmental

(ix)    Listening to them and helping them when they have problems

(x)    Providing them with ARVs which help to slow down the progression of the condition

(xi)    Counselling them to stop behaviors1 that could worsen their condition, for example taking drugs or having many sexual partners

(xii)    Keeping their bodies, clothing and bedding clean.

(xiii)    Avoid discriminating or stigmatizing them

Stigmatization/discrimination

Is the habit of disrespecting, calling bad names or using bad language to people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA).

Ways in which PLWHA are discriminated

The following are various ways through which PLWHA are discriminate

(i)    Branding them with bad names such as walking corpse

(ii)    Denying them work opportunities

(iii)    Denying them education or health services

(iv)    Chasing them away from home

(v)    Staying away from them

(vi)    Refusing to share utensils or rooms with them

(vii)    Not involving them in decision making

(viii)    Hiding them from the public

 

Importance of providing care and support to PLWHA

(i)    It saves life

(ii)    It brings hope and encouragement to PLWHA

(iii)    It reduces depression and self-dislike

(iv)    It promotes good health

(v)    It gives peace of mind

(vi)    It reduces fear of death and gives long life

(vii)    It gives strength to work and comfort

The effects of discrimination /stigmatization to PLWHA

(i)    Leads to depression

(ii)    Leads to loneliness

(iii) Leads to loss of hope

(iv)    Leads to poor health

(v)    Leads to hastened death

(vi)    Leads to poor performance at work and school

 

Precautions to be taken when handling people living with HIV/AIDS

When handling people living with HIV/AIDS we must take precautions so as to avoid being infected. These precautions include.

(i)    Avoid touching the body fluids of the patient such as blood, stool and urine with bare hands.

(ii)    Wear disposal gloves when handling faeces, urine, vomiting or blood from PLWHA

(iii)    Wear gloves or the plastic bag when cleaning sick person or his/her clothes or beddings

(iv)    Do not share sharp tools like needles, razor blades

(v)    Keep the clothes and beddings with blood, diarrhea or body fluids away from other washings

(vi)    Keep the clothes and beddings with blood, diarrhea or body fluids away from other washings.

(vii)    Keep any wound clean and covered.

 

BASIC QUESTIONS

1.    (a) Explain the meaning of HIV, AIDS, STIs and STDs

(b)    Explain the causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, effects and preventive and control measures of HIV/AIDS, STIs and STDs (Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Candidiasis, Trichomoniasis, Genital herpes, Hepatitis B and Chlamydia).

2.    (a) With examples explain the meaning of risky behaviours

(b)    Explain ways of avoiding/preventing risky situations, risky behaviours and practices

(c)    Demonstrate necessary skills for avoiding risky behaviours

(d)    Explain the importance of curative health care for STIs and opportunistic diseases.

– Early health care seeking habit

– The importance of early medical testing and treatment

3.    (a) Explain the importance of providing care and support to PLWHA in the family community and at school.

(b)    Explain the effects of discrimination and stigma to PLWHA to individual, family and society.

Health

Is a state of physical, mental and social well – being.

OR

Is a general condition of the body, mind in which a person is free from disease, injury, damage or pain.

OR

Is a state of being physically, mentally and socially well.

– Health is not merely the absence of diseases.

 

There are two states of health

(a)    Good health

(b)    Poor health

 

Good health

I s a state of the body to be free from diseases, injury or pain

 

Poor health

Is a state in which a person is often attacked by diseases, pain or injury.

 

Pathogens

Are organisms which cause diseases.

Example – Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms and viruses

 

IMMUNITY

Is the ability of the body to resist against infection.

Or

Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells and cancer cells.

– Immunity is made possible by the immune system.

– The human immune system consists of white blood cells, the lymphatic system, sleep, thymus, skin and the bone marrow.

– The scientific study of immune system is called immunology

 

TYPES OF IMMUNITY

There are two types of immunity;

(a)    Natural immunity

(b)    Artificial immunity

(a) NATURAL IMMUNITY

Is a type of immunity that a person is born with.

– This immunity is inborn and exists even before the body is exposed to pathogens and it is permanent.

– It can also result from natural exposure to antigen.

– It is the inherited ability of the body to remain resistant or unaffected by a specific disease.

 

(b) ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

Is a type of immunity that individual acquire through immunization or vaccination.

– This is a type of immunity that occurs when a person’s immune system is induced to produce an immune response.

– Artificial immunity is that which an individual acquires during his/her life time.

– It is called artificial immunity because it is not produced naturally by the body

IMMUNIZATION

Is the process of introducing a vaccine into the body of an animal in order to produce antibodies.

– Immunization is also called vaccination or inoculation.

VACCINE

Is a preparation containing inactivated or weakened disease – causing organisms such as bacteria or viruses

– Vaccine are introduced in the body either orally or by injection to stimulate the production of antibodies by the immune system.

Natural or artificial immunity can either be active or passive

Active immunity

This involves inducing the body to produce its own antibodies to fight an infection.

– It take a long time to be activities but provide long-lasting protection. It involves memory cells which recognize an infection if it recurs.

Passive immunity

Is a type of immunity that is acquired when antibodies are produced by one person and then transferred to another person.

– This provides instant but short – lived protection.

 

TYPES OF NATURAL IMMUNITY

Natural immunity can be divided into;

(i)    Natural active immunity

(ii)    Natural passive immunity

(i)    Natural active immunity

Is a type of immunity that develops a result of the body being exposed to pathogens or toxins.

– After infection, antibodies are produced in the body.

– When the pathogens enter the body they may directly attack the body or produce poisons called toxins

– Then the body detects the pathogens or their toxins and produce chemicals (antibodies) to fight back

 

ANTIGENS

Are foreign substance that enters the body. E.g. pathogens and their toxins.

TOXINS

Are poisons that produced by the pathogens.

ANTIBODIES

Are chemical substances produced by the body to fight against antigens.

– Antibodies are specific to fight specific antigens.

For example, if a person catches measles, the body develops antibodies against the measles. In the future the body will produce the same antibodies if it is attacked again by the measles pathogens.

(ii)    Natural passive immunity

Is a type of immunity that develop when a mother passes antibodies to her baby during pregnancy and breast feeding.

– This immunity lasts for a few weeks or months during which time the baby’s own immunity develops.

 

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY

There are two types of artificial immunity:

(i) Artificial active immunity

(ii) Artificial passive immunity

(i) Artificial active immunity

Is a type of immunity that is acquired through immunization or vaccination using vaccines.

– When the person is immunized or Vaccinated using vaccines, the vaccine causes the body to produce antibodies as if it was being attacked by the real antigens  Some of the body’s cells that make the immune system response remain as memory cells which can rapidly reproduce themselves is a real infection occurs.

– This type of immunity is the one that is passed on during the routine immunization of infants and children. The incidence of disease such as measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, yellow fever, chicken pox and polio have been greatly reduced due to vaccination.

Example

When vaccine against measles is injected to the body it produces antibodies rapidly.

(ii) Artificial passive immunity;

Is a type of immunity that is acquired when an individual receives readymade antibodies.

– Such type of antibodies are usually produced by other organism and given to individual through injection.

Example of artificial passive immunity

– Vaccination against snake bites and tetanus.

Advantages of Active immunity

– Provides a long- lasting protection

Disadvantages of Active immunity

-It takes a long time to be activated

Advantages of passive immunity

– Provides instant protection

Disadvantages of passive immunity

– Provides short – lived protection

 

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE BODY IMMUNITY

(i)    Age

(ii)    Extreme Stress

(iii)    Bad lifestyle

(iv)    Incomplete treatments

(v)    Damage to the skin

(vi)    Lack of proper nutrition

(vii)    Lack of vaccination

(viii)    Diseases and Genetic disorders

(ix)    Attack by pathogen

 

(i)    Lack of vaccination

If a person is not vaccinated against some disease, there is a higher chance of getting infected. For example, a child who is not vaccinated against measles gets the infection easily if there is an outbreak. Once a person gets a disease, it is too late to vaccine against it.

(ii)    Genetic disorders

Some people are born with conditions that affect their immunity. For example albinos have a skin that is less resistance to harmful rays from the sun compared to normal skin. Hence albinos have a higher risk of getting skin cancer.

(iii)    Incomplete treatment

If a sick person does not take a complete dose of treatment for an infection or disease, this may affect immunity. This is because the disease-causing microorganisms are not completely destroyed and could therefore be re activated easily, causing the infection or disease to recur.

(iv)    Attack by pathogens

Some pathogens such as HIV destroy white blood cells which are important part of the immune system. This makes the body more susceptible to infections.

(v)    Extreme stress

Studies have shown that people under very stressful conditions, often have low immunity and therefore get infections easily compared to non-stressed people.

(vi)    Damage to the skin

The skin acts as a barrier, preventing microorganisms from entering the body. When the skin is damaged, for example due to severe burns or numerous cuts, this barrier becomes weak. Disease – causing organisms can therefore enter the body more as easily.

(vii)    Poor nutrition

Some nutrients are partly used in manufacturing white blood cells and antibodies which defend the body against diseases. Therefore, improper intake of some nutrients may result the immunity to be weak.

(viii)    Poor personal hygiene

Poor person hygiene and poor environmental sanitation lead to environmental frequent illness hence over working the immune system.

(ix)    Bad life style

Bad lifestyle such as cigarette, smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse and having many sexual partners may weaken body immunity.

(x)    Age

Children under 5 years and people above 60 years have lower immunity to some diseases such as malaria and flu

(xi)    Exposure to harmful chemicals and radiation

Certain type of chemical and radiation affect the body immunity when a person becomes exposed to them for example x- rays destroy and kill the body cells.

 

THE NATURAL BODY DEFENCE SYSTEM

The human body has natural defense systems that either prevent microorganisms from entering the body or combat them when they manage to enter the body.

These are:

(i)    Skin

(ii)    Eyes

(iii)    Ears

(iv)    Digestive system

(v)    Blood

(vi)    Respiratory tract

(i)    SKIN

Intact skin is a physical barrier against entry of pathogens. Sweat glands in the skin produce sweat, which contains antibacterial agents that kill bacteria. Sebaceous glands of the skin produce oily substance called sebum which contains antibacterial agents that kills bacteria on the skin.

(ii)    EYES

Tear glands found in the upper eyelids produce tear. Tears contain enzymes which kill microorganisms and protect the eyeball from infection. Eye lashes, eyelids and eyebrows prevent dust particles and other foreign bodies from entering the eyes.

(iii) EARS

The lining of the ear canal produces waxy material which traps bacteria, viruses and small dust particles.

(iv)    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva, which is a mild antibacterial agent.

Hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach walls also destroys and kills most bacteria

taken in with food. Digestive juices produced in the small intestine digest and kill the bacteria in the intestine.

(v)    BLOOD

Blood comprises of lymphocytes and phagocytes. The lymphocytes produce antibodies that destroy pathogens. The phagocytes engulf microorganisms invading the body, thus defending the body against disease – causing organisms.

(vi)    RESPIRATORY TRACT

Mucous secreting cells in the respiratory tract produce mucus which traps microorganisms and small dust particles. The respiratory tract such as trachea have hairs called cilia and mucus which trap and fitter dust and microorganisms.

 

PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS

Personal hygiene

Is the practice of keeping the body, clothes and environment clean in order to maintain good health.

– Person hygiene skills are primarily emphasized to young people.

– Such skills include body cleanliness, and wearing clean clothes. As the individual grows personal hygiene responsibilities changes from self – help to helping others and maintaining their hygiene at family level and the surrounding community.

 

PRINCIPLES OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

(i)    Take bath twice every day.

(ii)    Brush teeth at least twice a day. In the morning and before going to bed.

(iii)    Always wear clean clothes

(iv)    Keep the environment clean. The environment includes bedroom, classroom and school.

(v)    Keep nails short and clean.

(vi)    Comb hair every day or keep it well plaited.

(vii)    Change bedding regularly.

(viii)    Wear comfortable and well-fitted clothes

(ix)    Do not spit on the ground. Spit onto a tissue paper.

(x)    Rinse the mouth with clean and safe water after eating.

(xi)    Avoid touching other’s body fluids such as blood, vomiting, urine and saliva with bare hands.

(xii)    Wash hands with soap and clean water after visiting the toilet and before eating.

(xiii)    Cover mouth and nose with a clean handkerchief or tissue when coughing or sneezing.

(xiv)    Do not share handkerchiefs, towels and clothes, especially underwear.

(xv)    Use a clean toilet for relieving yourself.

(xvi)    Make sure pets are kept clean. Keep pet litter out of the living room.

(xvii)    Avoid picking nose and biting nails

 

IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

(i)    It prevents diseases and maintains good health. Personal hygiene keeps away organisms that causes diseases.

(ii)    It provides better appearance and prevents body odour.

(iii) It increases self-confidence and enhances social acceptance.

(iv) It brings personal relaxation. After taking bath, someone feels comfortable and relaxed

 

GOOD MANNERS

Are behaviors that are socially acceptable.

– They include honesty, respect for others, politeness and helpfulness.

– These behaviours are also learnt throughout our lives from a tender age. Personal hygiene is also part of good social manners.

 

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD MANNERS

(i)    Maintain a good posture when sitting or standing.

(ii)    Speak in a clear voice. Do not shout

(iii)    Avoid risk behaviour and bad lifestyle. Example smoking, alcoholism and prostitution

(iv) Be respectful when you disagree with someone opinion.

(v)    Eat while sitting at a proper place

(vi)    Be helpful to other people. If possible give assistance to the needy.

(vii)    Admit a mistake and apologies.

(viii)    Greet people politely. If you were sitting stand up straight and if you were walking or running, then stand still.

(ix)    Express your feelings in a proper manner.

(x)    Dress properly according to the occasion and the social norms in your community.

(xi)    Say ‘please’ when requesting for something

(xii)    Say ‘thank you’ when given something or allowed to do something.

(xiii)    Chew when the mouth is closed.

(xiv)    Cover the mouth when coughing or yawning.

(xv)    Do not talk while eating.

(xvi)    Chew at reasonable pace.

(xvii)    Do not dominate conversation. Give other people a chance to talk.

(xviii)    Welcome visitors warmly. Introduce them to people they do not know.

(xix)    Do not use foul language.

(xx)    Be punctual when meeting or visiting someone.

(xxi)    Give up your seat to an elderly person, handicapped or pregnant and breastfeeding woman when on a crowded bus or train.

(xxii)    Serve yourself reasonable portions of food. Do not waste food.

(xxiii)    Avoid criticizing the food prepared by other people.

 

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD MANNERS

(i)    Makes a person more acceptable and respectable in the community.

(ii)    Promotes peace of mind. Thus, enabling people to concentrate on their works, studies and other activities

(iii)    Makes us good role models to other people in the community.

(iv)    Prevents one from getting choked while eating.

(v)    Maintains personality of an individual in the society.

(vi)    One becomes respected by others

(vii)    Maintains health of the body and mind

 

BAD MANNERS

Are behaviors that are not socially acceptable.

For example, Theft, telling lies, being rude and cruel, using foul language, fighting etc.

REQUIREMENTS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS

Items Uses
(i) Tooth brush and tooth paste – For brushing of teeth
(ii) Soap and clean water – For bathing and washing
(iii) Towels – For drying our body after bathing and washing hands
(iv) Nail cutter or razor blade – For cutting nails of toes and

fingers

(v) Comb – For combing the hair
(vi) Clean clothes, shoes, shirts
(vii) Scissors – For cutting long hairs
(viii) Handkerchief – F
(ix) Skin oil

The following things can help us to maintain personal hygiene.

Requirements of good manners

The following things can help us to maintain good manner.

(i)    Be ready to receive advice from parents, teachers, elders and other people in the community. Good advice helps us to improve ourselves.

(ii)    Interact with peers and friends who practice proper personal hygiene and have good manners.

 

PERSONAL HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY

PUBERTY

Is the period when a boy or a girl show some changes in the body.

– It is a period when children begin to mature biologically, psychologically and socially and their bodies become capable of reproduction.

– Puberty usually occurs between age of 10 to 14 years for girls and 12 to 16 years for boys.

– During puberty, young girls and boys develop secondary sexual characteristics which create a distinct difference between males and females. Puberty leads to adolescence.

 

ADOLESCENCE

Is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood.

– Changes in the body that occur in boys and girls at puberty are called secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Secondary sexual characteristics and changes that occur in boys during puberty

The following are features that develop in boys at puberty:

(i)    Enlargement of testes and penis.

(ii)    Sperm production begins

(iii)    Widening of shoulders and chest.

(iv)    Development of hair under the armpits and pubic regions.

(v)    Growth of beards and facial pimples

(vi)    Wet dreams begins

(vii)    Development of muscular body.

(viii)    Development of deep voice.

(ix)    Sweat and oil glands become active leading to changes in body odors.

 

WAYS OF MAINTAINING PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY

The following are important measures in maintaining personal hygiene during puberty.

(i)    Bath at least twice per day.

(ii)    Wear clean clothes. Avoid wearing many clothes.

(iii)    Wear clean and dry under wears.

(iv)    Wash under wears regularly.

(v)    Shave beards and pubic hairs. This helps to prevent bad odour or infections.

(vi)    Clean genital organs thoroughly and dry them by clean towel while bathing.

(vii)    Girls should change the sanitary pads regularly when are in periods.

(viii)    Wash clothes and beddings regularly.

(ix)    Avoid sexual intercourse. This causes early pregnancy and transmission of diseases e.g. HIV.

(x)    Avoid peer pressure and emotions. By doing regular exercise, joining subject clubs and drama.

 

INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

INFECTION

Is the attack and growth of pathogens in the body of an organism. Pathogens

Are organisms that cause diseases.

– They include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa

– Pathogens enter the organism’s body through wounds, nose, mouth, genitals, animal bites and vectors.

– Infection may not necessarily cause diseases. This because the body immunity can attack pathogens before a disease develops.

– A person may be infected but may not be sick until some signs and symptoms appear.

Signs

Are those things that can be seen or measured.

Example of signs include:

– Blood in the stool

– Skin rashes

– High blood pressure

– High blood sugar

– Vomiting Symptoms

DISEASE

Is a condition that interferes with the health of the body.

– It can be caused by pathogens (infection), Body abnormalities, nutrient deficiencies, chemicals and radiations from the environment and hereditary factors.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFECTION AND DISEASES

INFECTION DISEASES
(i) Occurs when the pathogens invade or enter the body Occurs few hours or days after infection
(ii) It is not associate with signs and symptoms It occurs when the signs and symptoms occur

 

TYPES OF DISEASES

There are two main types of diseases, namely:

(a)    Non-communicable diseases

(b)    Communicable diseases

(a) NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one person to another.

– Non – communicable diseases may be caused by nutrient deficiency, environmental pollutants and genetic defects.

– Non – communicable diseases are also called non – infectious diseases Example of non – communicable diseases

– Nutritional deficiency diseases, such as kwashiorkor, beriberi, scurvy, night blindness

– Hereditary diseases such as albinism, sickle cell anemia, haemophilia

– Hormonal diseases such as Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes insipidus and cretinism.

– Environmental diseases such as Lung cancer, Asbestosis, Asthma, Coronary (heart) diseases.

(b) COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Are diseases that can spread from one person to another.

– Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and worms.

– Communicable diseases are also called Infections diseases or contagious diseases.

The Table below shows the pathogens and their associated communicable diseases;

PATHOGEN DISEASES
Viruses Measles, chickenpox, Ebola, rabies, polio, mumps, smallpox, common cold, influenza, AIDS and genital herpes.
Bacteria Tetanus, cholera, plague, leprosy, typhoid, diphtheria, tuberculosis (TB).
Protozoa Malaria, amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness,
Fungi Ringworm, candidiasis, athlete’s foot.
Worms Elephantiasis, ascariasis, taeniasis, schistosomiasis (bilharzia)

 

TYPES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Communicable diseases may be;

(i)    Epidemic

(ii)    Pandemic

(iii)Endemic

(i)    PANDEMIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that becomes wide spread in a large geographical area such as a continent or the whole world.

Example of pandemic diseases

– AIDS

– Influenza.

(ii)    EPIDEMIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that spreads quickly and affects a large number of people in a short period of time at a given locality.

Example of epidemic diseases

– Cholera

– Meningitis

– Plague.

– Rift valley fever (RVF)

– Tuberculosis

(iii) ENDEMIC DISEASES

Is a communicable disease that occur regularly in a particular place or in a given area constantly. Example of endemic disease

– Malaria

– Bilharzia

– Tuberculosis

– Gonorrhea

– Syphilis

– Typhoid

(iv) SPORADIC DISEASE

Is a communicable disease that occurs occasionally and at random intervals.

Example of sporadic diseases

– Ebola

– Rift valley fever

 

DISEASE TRANSMISSION

Is the spread of an infection from person to person or from vector to person.

Ways of diseases transmission

The pathogens or diseases can be spread or transmitted from one person to another through the following ways:

(i)    Through droplets

(ii)    Through contaminated water and food

(iii) Through sexual intercourse

(iv)    Through contact

(v)    Through vector

(vi)    Through blood

1. Through droplet

Secretions from an infected person are transferred from the nose or mouth onto the surfaces or hands by droplets produced when sneezing, spitting, coughing or speaking. Example of diseases spread by droplets are tuberculosis, COVID – 19 and flu or influenza.

2. Through contact

Some diseases such as scabies and measles may be spread from one individual to another through direct or indirect contact with infected skin, clothing, combs or dressings.

3. Through sexual intercourse

Some pathogens can be transmitted from an infected person to another through sexual intercourse. Examples are pathogens causing infections and diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B, genital herpes.

4. Through contaminated food and water

Some diseases like cholera, typhoid, amoebic dysentery and schistosomiasis are transmitted through contaminated water and food. Water and food can be contaminated by pathogens discharged in faeces, flies.

5. Through air

When a person sneezes or coughs without covering the mouth the pathogens are released into the air. If another person inhales that air, he/she will carry the pathogens into his/her body. Example of diseases transmitted through air are Tuberculosis, Influenza, whooping cough, chicken pox, Measles, common cold.

6. Through blood

Some infections occur when infected blood from an infected person enters the body of another person. This can be through transfusing infected blood, sharing sharp instruments like needles, razor blades, and scissors. Example of the diseases transmitted through blood are AID, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

7. Through vectors

Some pathogens are transmitted by organisms such as snails, Housefly, Mosquitoes, Tsetse fly, Rats, Lice fleas. Example of diseases transmitted by vectors are malaria, sleeping sickness, dengue fever and plague.

 

VECTORS

Are organisms that carry pathogens.

The table below shows pathogens and their corresponding vectors

VECTOR PATHOGEN DISEASE
Female anopheles mosquito Plasmodium Malaria
Tsetse fly Trypanosoma Sleeping sickness
Housefly Amoeba Dysentery
Housefly Vibrio cholerae Cholera
Snail Schistosoma Bilharzia

 

COMMON INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

The following are example of diseases and infections that are common in Tanzania and other countries in Africa.

– Tuberculosis

– Typhoid

– Cholera

– Malaria

– Bilharzia

– Plague

– Meningitis

 

THE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, MODE OF TRANSMISSION AND EFFECTS OF COMMON

INFECTIONS AND DISEASES

1. TUBERCULOSIS (TB)

Is a communicable and highly infectious disease

Causes

– It is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mode of Transmission

Tuberculosis can be transmitted through:

(i)    Droplets when coughing or sneezing

(ii)    Breathing infected air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

(iii)Breastfeeding with infected milk

 

Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis

(i)    Prolonged cough

(ii)    Blood stained sputum

(iii)    Night sweats

(iv)    Fever

(v)    Weight loss

(vi)    Poor appetite( lack of appetite)

(vii)    Lack of energy

NB: Sputum is a slippery fluid that comes out when one coughs.

 

Effects of tuberculosis

(i)    Lugh damage

(ii)    Kidney damage

(iii) Bone infection

(iv)    Hunch back

(v)    Damage to the immune system

(vi)    Death

Prevention/control measures of tuberculosis

(i)    Vaccination

(ii)    Patients should cover nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing

(iii) Avoid-crowded areas

(iv) Isolation of the patient from other family members (v) Medical treatment.

 

QUESTION

A middle man is regularly visiting the local traditional healer suspecting he has been bewitched. He has prolonged cough and is emitting stained sputum whenever he coughs. He cannot eat properly because he has poor appetite and suffers weight loss. He is surprised that he sweats a lot during the night.

(a) Name the possible disease a man is suffering from.

(b) What is the cause and how is it transmitted?

(c) What are the prevention method? Any three

 

2. TYPHOID

Causes

– It is caused by bacteria called salmonella typhi that mostly affect the intestine and stomach of the human being

Mode of Transmission of typhoid

The following are ways through which typhoid is transmitted or spread:

(i)    Through eating contaminated food

(ii)    Through drinking contaminated water or juices

(iii) Through vectors such as houseflies

(iv) Poor sanitation

Signs and symptoms of typhoid

Typhoid is characterized by the following signs and symptoms

(i)    Diarrhea

(ii)    Vomiting

(iii) Mild fever

(iv)    Abdominal pain

(v)    Headache

(vi)    Constipation (passing out hard stool)

Effects of typhoid

Typhoid may cause the following problems

(i)    Body weakness

(ii)    Abdominal pain

(iii) Kidney and bladder infection which result into kidney failure

Prevention/Control measures of typhoid

Typhoid can be controlled or prevented by:

(i)    Drinking clean and safe water

(ii)    Washing hands before eating and after visiting toilet

(iii)    Handling and preparing food in a hygienic condition

(iv)    Eating properly cooked food

(v)    Disposing faeces properly

(vi)    Covering food to prevent flies from reaching the food

(vii) Washing by using clean water Foods which are not cooked.

(viii)    Proper community sanitation and general cleanliness

(ix)    Medical treatment. Typhoid can be treated by using antibiotics such as chloramphenicol.

 

3. CHOLERA

Causes

– It is caused by bacteria called vibrio cholerae.

Mode of Transmission of cholera

The following are ways through which Cholera is transmitted

(i)    Through eating contaminated food

(ii)    Through drinking contaminated water

(iii) Poor sanitation

(iv) Through vectors such as houseflies

Signs and symptoms of cholera

A patient of cholera shows the following signs and symptoms:

(i)    Sunken eyes

(ii)    Severe watery diarrhoea

(iii)    Vomiting which looks like rice water

(iv)    General body weakness

(v)    Loss of weight (vi) Wrinkled skin

(vii)    Weak pulse

(viii)    Muscle cramps

Effects of cholera

Cholera causes the following problems

(i)    Body weakness

(ii)    Dehydration (Lack of water in the body)

(iii) Weight loss

(iv)    Kidney failure

(v)    Death

Prevention/control

Cholera can be prevented or controlled through observing the following

(i)    Washing hands after visiting the toilet

(ii)    Boiling or treating drinking water

(iii)    Washing hands with soap before eating

(iv)    Wash fruit and vegetables

(v)    Eating hot food

(vi)    Proper sanitation

(vii)    Improve personal hygiene

(viii)    Prepare the food in a hygienic way.

 

QUESTION

A group of students from Bidii secondary had a study visit to Bugando Hospital. They noticed a patient with sunken eyes, severe diarrhea, vomiting, weak pulse, wrinkled skin and muscle cramps. The laboratory procedure also revealed the presence of comma shaped bacterium in the patient’s stool.

(a)    What could be the possible disease the patient was suffering from?

(b)    What is the cause of the disease and how it is transmitted?

(c)    Suggest four (4) preventive measures of the disease you have in (a) above

 

4.    MALARIA

Is a communicable disease

Causes of malaria

Malaria is caused by protozoa called plasmodium.

Mode of Transmission of malaria

The following are ways through which malaria (plasmodium) can be transmitted:

(i)    Through vectors such as female anopheles mosquitoes

(ii)    Through blood transfusion

Signs and symptoms of malaria

(i)    Pain in the joints

(ii)    Chills

(iii)    Fever

(iv)    Sweating

(v)    Nausea and vomiting

(vi)    Headache

(vii)    Abdominal pain

(viii)    Lack of appetite

Effects of malaria

(i)    Anaemia (decreased red blood cells in the blood)

(ii)    Kidney failure

(iii) Liver damage

(iv)    Brain damage leading to mental problems

(v)    Death

Prevention/control measures of Malaria

Control and preventive measures of malaria aim at eradicating female anopheles mosquitoes or preventing mosquito bites as follow

(i)    Spraying oil in breeding sites

(ii)    Cutting long grasses around the house

(iii)    Draining stagnant water

(iv)    Sleeping under treated mosquito nets

(v)    Applying mosquito repellants

(vi)    Using windows with mosquito-proof wire meshes

(vii)    Wearing clothes that cover the whole body during the night studying

 

5.    CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID- 19)

Is a pandemic disease caused by the corona viruses that can trigger respiratory tract infection which may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Cause of COVID- 19

It is caused by corona virus -19

Mode of transmission of COVID-19 COVID-19 can be transmitted through:

– Inhaling droplets from an infected person. A person becomes infected through inhaling droplets from the nose or mouth which are expelled when infected person coughs, sneezes or speaks.

– Shaking hands with infected person. A person becomes infected when shakes hands with infected person.

– Touching contaminated objects and surfaces. A person can becomes infected by touching objects such as tables, doorknobs then touching his/her eyes, nose or mouth.

Sign and symptoms of COVID-19

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Headaches

(iii)    Dry cough

(iv)    Tiredness

(v)    Shortness of breath

(vi)    Joint aches and pain

(vii)    Loss of smell or taste

(viii)    Abdominal pain

(ix)    Diarrhoea

(x)    Vomiting

Note: Infected person may be asymptomatic

Asymptomatic (Pre –symptomatic) – means somebody that does not have symptoms.

Effects of COVID-19

(i)    Lung damage

(ii)    Blood clotting

(iii) Death

Prevention/Control measures of COVID-19

(i) Use hand sanitizers as often as possible

(ii)    Wear masks when going to public places

(iii)    Keep social distance. Stay at least 1 meter away from others.

(iv)    Isolation of patients

(v)    Avoid overcrowded places (avoid unnecessary gatherings).

(vi)    Frequently wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean running water. (vii) Avoid touching your eyes, mouth and nose.

 

6. BILHARZIA/SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Is a parasitic worm disease.

Causes of bilharzia

It is caused by a flatworm called Schistosoma haematobium or blood flukes

Mode of Transmission of bilharzia

The following is the main way through which bilharzia can be transmitted:

– Through water snails

– Through drinking contaminated water. When the infected person urinates or defeacates into water bodies, releases eggs into water.

Signs and symptoms of bilharzia

Bilharzia is characterized with the following signs and symptoms

(i)    Abdominal pain

(ii)    Blood stained faeces or urine

(iii)    Diarrhea

(iv)    Fever

(v)    Enlarged liver and spleen

(vi)    Tiredness

(vii)    Headache

(viii)    Coughing

(ix)    Painful urination

(x)    Itching in the urinary bladder and in the rectum.

Effects of Bilharzia

(i)    Swollen (enlarged) liver and spleen

(ii)    Intestinal damage

(iii)    Bladder damage

(iv)    Brain damage

(v)    Anaemia

(vi)    Liver damage

(vii)    Spleen damage

(viii)    Lung damage

(ix)    Spinal cord inflammation(damage)

(x)    Paralysis or seizures

Prevention/ Control measures of Bilharzia

(i)    Killing water snails with chemicals

(ii)    Avoiding swimming in untreated stagnant water

(iii)    Wearing protective shoes in water logged areas

(iv)    Proper disposal of sewage

(v)    Draining stagnant water

(vi)    Proper use of toilets and avoiding urinating in water bodies (vii) Medical treatment

 

7. PLAGUE

Causes

It is caused by bacteria called Yersinia pastis.

– This bacteria attack lymph nodes and therefore affect the activity of immune system

Mode of Transmission of Plague

– Plague is transmitted by fleas found on rats. A person is infected when bitten by infected fleas

Signs and symptoms of Plague

(i)    Inflammation (swollen) of lymph nodes

(ii)    High fever

(iii) Internal bleeding

(iv)    Body aches

(v)    Coughing

(vi)    Shortness of breath

Effects of plague

(i)    Destruction of immune system through attacking white blood cells

(ii)    Skin discoloration

(iii) Severe pain

(iv)    Anaemia

(v)    Pneumonia

(vi)    Death

Prevention/control of plague

(i)    Eliminating rats and fleas

(ii)    Keeping house clean

(iii) Leftovers should be kept in tight vessels to discourage rat in houses

(iv)    Vaccination

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

8.    MENINGITIS

Is the inflammation of membranes (meninges) which cover brain and spinal cord due to bacteria attack.

Causes of meningitis

It is caused by bacteria called Meningococcus sp

Mode of Transmission of Meningitis

– Meningitis spreads through droplets (air) when sneezing, coughing or kissing.

Signs and symptoms of Meningitis

(i)    Stiff neck

(ii)    Seizures of fits

(iii)    Delirium (Confusion)

(iv)    Severe headache

(v)    Sudden high fever

(vi)    Nausea

(vii)    Respiratory tract infection (Pneumonia)

(viii)    Coma (Loss of consciousness for a long time)

Note: Coma – is a state caused by serious illness or injury where a person is unconscious for a long time.

Effects of Meningitis

(i)    Brain damage

(ii)    Deafness (Loss of hearing)

(iii)    Poor coordination of movements

(iv)    Learning disabilities

(v)    Paralysis

(vi)    Death

(vii)    It led to seizures and mental problem in which people become scared of light and loud noises

Prevention of Meningitis

(i)    Isolating the infected person from others.

(ii)    Vaccination

(iii)Maintaining healthy habits like not smoking and avoiding cigarette smokes

(iv)    Getting plenty of rest

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

9.    SCABIES

Cause

– It is caused by microscopic mites

Mode of transmission of scabies

– Scabies spread by skin to skin contact.

– Through sharing clothing, towels and beddings

Signs and symptoms of scabies

(i)    Intense itching

(ii)    Rashes and burrows on the skin

(iii)Sores on the skin

Effects of scabies

(i)    Persistent skin rashes

(ii)    Damaged skin

(iii) Leads to secondary infections

Prevention/control measures of scabies

(i)    Good personal hygiene

(ii)    Wash contaminated clothes in hot water and dry them in the sun

(iii) Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, clothes or bedding

(iv)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

10.    RABIES

Causes

– Caused by rabies virus

Mode of transmission of rabies

Rabies is transmitted through

(i)    Scratches or bites from infected cats, dogs, jackals, humans or other animal

(ii)    Organ transplants from infected people

(iii) Direct contact of eyes, nose, and mouth with saliva of an infected animal

Signs and symptoms of rabies

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Pain at the site of bites

(iii)    Difficulty swallowing

(iv)    Restlessness

(v)    Muscles spasms

(vi)    Convulsions

(vii)    Loss of feeling

(viii)    Drooling

(ix)    Foaming at the mouth

Effects of rabies

(i)    Damage to the nervous system

(ii)    Brain damage

(iii) Paralysis

(iv)    Death

Prevention/control measures of rabies

(i)    Pets should be taken care

(ii)    Stay away from suspicious pets

(iii) When bitten by a dog or other animals report immediately to a nearby health care facility

(iv) Vaccination

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

STIs, STDs, and HIV/AIDS

The Definition of abbreviations

STIs stands for sexually Transmitted Infections

STDs stands for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

– These infections and diseases are called sexually transmitted because they are spread from one person to another mainly through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person.

STIs and STDs also can be transmitted: –

– Through blood transfusion

– Through sharing items like towels

– From a mother to the child Note: Not all STIs turn into STDs

– HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that causes AIDS through breaking down or destroying the immune system of the body.

– AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome people with AIDS get infections and diseases more easily because their immune system is weakened.

Common STIs and STDs

The following are common STs and STDs

(i)    Syphilis

(ii)    Gonorrhea

(iii)    Chlamydia

(iv)    Hepatitis B

(v)    Genital herpes (vi) Trichomonas’s

(vii)    Candidiasis

(viii)    AIDS

 

 

 

 

 

1.    GONORRHEA

This is an STD caused by bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoea. It affects parts of the body such as penis, vagina, anus, urethra and threat

Cause of gonorrhea

The causative agent of gonorrhea is Neisseria gonorrhea

Mode of transmission of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea can be spread from one person to another:

(i)    Through sexual intercourse

(ii)    Through sharing personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits (iii)From the infected mother to the child during birth.

Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea

(i)    Pain urination

(ii)    Yellowish discharge with foul smell from penis or vagina

(iii)    Abdominal pain

(iv)    Itching in the genital parts

(v)    Sore throat

(vi)    Irregular menstruation

(vii)    Retention of urine in males

(viii)    Rashes (sores) all over the body

Effects of gonorrhea

If gonorrhea remains untreated for a longtime, it may cause the following problems

(i)    Infertility (failure of a person to have children)

(ii)    Swollen and painful joints

(iii) Heart problems

(iv) Pain around pelvic area for women

Prevention/ Control measures of gonorrhea

(i)    Abstaining from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoiding sharing personal items such as towel, underwear, swimsuits, razor blades (iii)Seek immediate medical treatment

 

2.    SYPHILIS

This is a STD caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum which infects the vagina, anus, penis, lips and mouth.

Cause of syphilis

The causative agent of Syphilis is Treponema pallidum

Mode of Transmission of Syphilis

Syphilis can be spread from one person to another through the following ways: –

(i) Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Blood transfusion

(iii)    From the infected pregnant woman to the baby (fetus) during pregnancy

(iv)    Some bad practices such as oral sex and anal intercourse

Signs and symptoms of Syphilis

Syphilis goes through several stages after infection. Each stage has its own signs and symptoms as explained below:

Primary stage

This is the first stage that occurs between 3-4 weeks after infection

Signs and symptoms seen during stage one

(i)    Painless sore on sex organs like penis, vagina

(ii)    A sore called chancre on a part of the body which lasts for three to six weeks Note: Chancre is open, wet and painless and usually occurs on the vagina, penis, anus, breasts, lips or mouth

Secondary stage

This is the second stage that occurs between 8-14 weeks after infection.

– Signs and symptoms observed during this stage

(i)    Fever

(ii)    Skin rashes especially on the palms or soles of feet

(iii)    Swollen joint and joint pain

(iv)    Muscles pain

(v)    Loss of appetite

(vi)    Loss of weight

(vii)    Raised bumps on the skin

(viii) Swollen lymph nodes.

– The signs and symptoms explained above may come and go for two years

Late stage

This is the third stage that occurs 2 years after infection

– At this stage the individual is no longer infections

– If the diseases are treated it can be cured but if not, the diseases remain in the body for a long time (up to 20years)

– At this stage, the effects of syphilis are noticed such as brain damage, heart damage, poor eye sight and blindness bone changes and lastly death.

Effects of Syphilis

If syphilis is left untreated for many years the following problems result; – (i) Brain damage

(ii)    Nervous system damage

(iii)    Heart damage

(iv)    Poor sight and blindness due to eye damage

(v)    Bone changes/ Bone damage

(vi)    Stillbirth babies

(vii)    Mental retardation for babies

(viii)    Hearing problems

(ix)    Death

Prevention/Control of syphilis

(ii)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(iii)    Use screened blood for transfusion

(iii) Testing and treating pregnant women

(iv)    Avoid contact with skin sores especially with infected people

(v)    Avoid sharing of pants, towels or razor blades

(vi)    Medical treatment

 

3.    CHLAMYDIA

This is an STD Caused bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis Mode of transmission of chlamydia Chlamydia is spread through:

(i)    Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Infection from mother to child at birth

Signs and symptoms of chlamydia

(i)    Bleeding from the vagina after sexual intercourse

(ii)    Lower abdominal pain

(iii) Pain during urination

(iv) Smelly discharge from the penis or vagina

Effects of chlamydia

(i)    Infertility

(ii)    Complications in reproductive system for both males and females

(iii)    Chronic pelvic pain

(iv)    Blindness

(v)    Giving birth to premature babies

(vi)    Ectopic pregnancy

(vii)    Infected babies develop health problems like infection in the eyes, ears and lungs.

 

4.    HEPATITIS B

This is an STD that is caused by the virus called Hepatitis B virus that attacks the liver

Mode of transmission of hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is Transmitted through; –

(i) Sexual intercourse/sexual contact

(ii) Blood transfusion

(iii)Sharing sharp instruments like needles, syringes and razor blades

Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B

(i)    Tiredness

(ii)    Fever

(iii)    Jaundice (yellowish skin and eyes)

(iv)    Dark tea colored urine

(v)    Abdominal pain

(vi)    Nausea and vomiting

(vii)    Itching all over the body

(viii)    Pale-colored stool

Effects of hepatitis B

(i)    Liver damage

(ii)    Liver cancer

(iii)    Death

Prevention/control measures of hepatitis B

(i)    Abstaining from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Vaccination

(iii)    Avoiding sharing sharp tools like needles and razor

(iv)    Use screened blood for transfusion

(v)    Seek immediate medical treatment

 

5.    GENITAL HERPES

This is an STD caused by the virus called Herpes simplex. It affects areas like lining of the mouth, vagina, penis and anus and eyes.

Cause of genital herpes

The causative agent of genital herpes is Herpes simplex

Mode of transmission of genital herpes

Genital herpes can from one person to another through; –

(i) Sexual intercourse

(ii) Touching affected body parts or contaminated objects like razor blades and underwear

Signs and symptoms of genital herpes

(i)    Recurrent fever

(ii)    Ulcers or blisters around the penis or vagina

(iii) Pain in or around the sex organs

(iv)    Headache

(v)    Itching and failure to urinate when sores swell and block the urethra

Effects of genital herpes

(i)    Recurrent painful ulcers

(ii)    Death of babies born to infected mother

(iii) Leads to Stillbirth for pregnant woman

Prevention/control of genital herpes

There is no cure for genital herpes, but can be prevented by

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoiding sharing personal items like razor blades and underwear

(iii) Medical treatment for both partners even if one has no symptoms

 

6.    TRICHOMONIASIS

This is an STD that mostly affects the vagina in women and urethra in men.

Cause of Trichomoniasis

It is caused by a protozoan called Trichomonas vaginalis

Mode of Transmission of Trichomoniasis

(i)    Sexual intercourse with infected person

(ii)    Sharing personal items such as towel, underwear and swimsuits

Signs and symptoms of Trichomoniasis

The following are signs and symptoms shown by women

(i)    Frothy, smelly yellow green discharge from the vagina

(ii)    Vaginal itching

(iii) Pain when urinating

Note: Men usually do not show signs and symptoms. However, some men may have temporary irritation inside the penis, mild discharge and slight burning after urination.

Effects of Trichomoniasis

If not treated earlier, Trichomoniasis may result the following problems

(i) It causes babies to be born with low birth weight

(ii) It causes premature births

Prevention/control measures of Trichomoniasis

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoid unsafe sexual intercourse

(iii)Avoid sharing of personal items like towels, underwear and swimsuits (iv) Medical treatment for both partners even if one has no symptoms

 

7.    CANDIDIASIS

This is an STD caused by fungus called Candida sp

Mode of Transmission of Candidiasis

Candidiasis can be spread from one person to another through; –

(i) Unprotected sexual intercourse

(ii) Sharing personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits (iii)Poor personal hygiene

Signs and symptoms of Candidiasis

(i)    Thick white discharge from the vagina

(ii)    Vaginal itching

(iii)    Thick white patches in the mouth

(iv)    Inflammation of the glans of the penis

(v)    Skin rashes

Effects of Candidiasis

– Infection of the blood stream

Prevention/control measures of Candidiasis

(i)    Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Avoid sexual contact with infected people

(iii) Do not share personal items such as towels, underwear and swimsuits

(iv)    Improve personal hygiene

(v)    Medical treatment

 

QUESTIONS

1.    Explain the meaning of sexually transmitted diseases

2.    Outline the causes, symptoms and effects of the following infections and diseases

(a)    Syphilis

(b)    Gonorrhoea

(c)    Candidiasis

(d)    Hepatitis B

 

HIV/AIDS

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

– This is a virus (retrovirus) that causes the immune system to lose its effici

causing AIDS.

– HIV is found usually in blood, however sometimes can be found in other body fluids like milk, Vaginal secretions, saliva and semen. Sweat, saliva and tears have very low amount of the virus, unless they contain blood.

– HIV attacks and kills the type of white blood cells called T-helper cells which are essential for immunity. After being infected with HIV, a person can remain asymptomatic for

years. The multiplication of HIV in the blood leads to massive destruction of helper-T cells. This weakens the immune system and the person develops opportunistic diseases.

OPPORTUNISTIC DISEASES

Are diseases that occur when the body immune system of an individual is weakened.

– Example of opportunistic diseases are:

(i)    Tuberculosis (TB)

(ii)    Severe diarrhoea

(iii)    Skin cancer

(iv)    Skin rashes

(v) Pneumonia

(vi) Kaposi’s sarcoma

AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

– People with AIDS are vulnerable to infections and diseases because their immune system is weakened.

– AIDS occurs when HIV positive individual develops symptoms. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.

Transmission of HIV

HIV can be spread through the following ways: –

(i)    Sexual intercourse

(ii)    Blood transfusion from infected donor)

(iii)    Sharing sharp instruments like razor blades, needles syringes piercing pins

(iv) Organ transplantation

(v) From an infected mother to the baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding

(vi) Using unsterilized instruments during surgery, circumcision or delivery.

(vii) Sharing personal items like toothbrushes, shaving blades or nail cutters with an infected person.

Note: HIV is not spread by casual contact such as hugging, shaking hands or touching unless both people have open wounds.

Symptoms and signs of HIV/AIDS

The signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS are divided into four stages as explained below;

(a)    Primary stage (window stage)

This stage is accompanied with flu-like illness. It occurs one to two months after infection.

– At this stage, the HIV increases rapidly in the body.

– At this stage, HIV test is negative and a person looks health.

– At primary stage,

the HIV infected person may experience some of the following symptoms:-

(i)    Sore throat

(ii)    Pain in the muscles and joints

(iii)    Mild fever

(iv)    Tiredness

(v)    Swelling of lymph nodes

(vi)    Rashes

(vii)    Headache

– The above symptoms will last for one to two weeks.

(b)    Asymptomatic stage

At this stage a person shows no signs or symptoms. A person looks healthy and HIV test is positive

(c)    Symptomatic stage

This stage is characterized by severe damage to the immune system.

– At this stage, a person’s health starts to become weak and some symptoms of AIDS are visible

Signs and symptoms experienced at symptomatic stage

(i)    Persistent fever (Fever that comes and go)

(ii)    Skin rashes

(iii) Sores in the mouth that come and go

(iv)    Tiredness and feeling un well

(v)    Infection in the airway that comes and go e.g. Pneumonia and TB

(vi) Weight loss

– Later the person’s body immunity decreases very much, therefore the person gets diseases which would normally be fought off by the immune called opportunistic infection.

– At this stage, the opportunistic infection can be treated and heal.

(d)    Full brown AIDS

This is the last stage of HIV infection

– At this stage, a person is said to suffer from AIDS Signs and symptoms of AIDS

(i)    Loss of body weight

(ii)    Persistent fever that lasts longer than a month

(iii)    Coughing for more than a month

(iv)    Diarrhea lasting longer than a month

(v)    Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits

(vi)    Itchy rashes on the skin

(vii)    Shortness of breath

(viii)    Genital rashes

(ix)    Vomiting

(x)    Painful sores in the mouth

(xi)    Loss of memory

(xii)    Confusion

(xiii)    Inability to see

(xiv)    Feeling of pins and needles (numbness) in the hands and feet.

(xv)    Shingles (painful skin rash, also called herpes zoster)

Effects of HIV/AIDS to a person

(i)    Chest infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis

(ii)    Brain infections leading to mental confusion

(iii) Stomach or gut infection leading to severe diarrhoea

(iv)    Skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma

(v)    Death

(vi)    Stigmatization

Effects of HIV/AIDS to the community

HIV/AIDS has affected people in the developing world to a large extent. A part from the painful illness and death, HIV/AIDS has the following effects to the community.

(i)    Reduced labour and production force

(ii)    Increased number of orphans, thus adding a burden to relatives and the society.

(iii) Families and government spend a lot of money to treat patients with HIV and AIDS

(iv)    Increased poverty

(v)    Reduces life expectancy

Prevention/control of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS has no cure, but can be prevented or controlled through the following ways; –

(i) Abstain from sexual intercourse

(ii)    Be faithful to only one sexual partner

(iii)    Use a condom during sexual intercourse

(iv)    Use sterilized instruments during surgery and delivery

(v)    Wear disposable gloves when touching people’s body fluids

(vi)    Use only screened blood and organs for transfusion and transplantation respectively (vii) Avoid sharing tooth brushes and sharp instruments like razor blades, needles.

(viii)    Give the anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) to the PLWHA so as to slow down the progression of the disease.

(ix)    Avoid risky behaviors that may put you in a danger of being infected e.g. Going to the night club alone or with the group of opposite sex, haring many sex partners, having bad peer groups drug abuse.

(x)    Avoid alcohol as it may affect your decision-making ability, hence dragging you into unsafe sex.

(xi)    Avoid smoking as it accelerates the speed of HIV infection.

Questions

1.    What are opportunistic infections?

2.    Explain how HIV is transmitted

3.    Explain seven ways through which HIV can be prevented

 

MANEGEMENT OF STIs, HIV AND AIDS

RISKY SITUATIONS, BEHAVIOURS AND PRACTICES

Risky behaviours: Are those behaviours that puts someone in danger of getting infected with

STDs and HIV. E.g. alcoholism, rape, drug abuse

Risky situations, practices: Are any situations or practices that puts someone in danger of getting infected with STDs and HIV.

Examples of risky situations, behaviors and practices that put us at a greater risk of being infected with STIs, STDs and HIV

(i)    Having many sexual partners

(ii)    Transfusion using unscreened blood

(iii)    Sharing personal items such as towels, underwear, swimsuits and toothbrushes

(iv) Sharing sharp instruments like razor blades, needles syringes.

(v)    Staying alone in isolated places or walking alone during the night. This increases the chance of being raped

(vi)    Staying in secluded places with members of opposite sex or strangers

(vii)    Using unsterilized instruments during circumcision delivery and surgery

(viii)    Having bad mannered friends or immoral friends. These pressure us into bad behaviors (ix) Having unprotected sexual intercourse.

(x)    Failing to report sexual abuse or rape

(xi)    Using alcohol as it impairers our decision making ability hence dragging us into unsafe sex.

(xii)    Drug abuse. Drug abusers tend to share syringes and needles

(xiii)    Accepting favours and gifts such as money, clothes and mobile phones from members of the opposite sex. These people may expect sexual favours in retain.

Ways of avoiding or preventing risky situations, risky behaviors and practices

(i) Abstain from sexual intercourse before marriage.

(ii)    Be faithful to one sexual partner after marriage or use a condom

(iii)    Use only screened blood for transfusion

(iv)    Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, underwear swimsuits and toothbrushes.

(v) Avoid sharing sharp tools like needles and razor blades

(vi) Never walk or stay alone in isolated places during night.

(vii) Avoid staying in isolated places with the company of opposite sex or strangers

(viii) Avoid taking alcohol.

(ix)    Avoid taking all forms of recreational drugs

(x)    Keep good company and avoid immoral friends

(xi)    Do not accept gifts or favours from members of the opposite sex

(xii)    Report all cases of sexual abuse, for example rape to a trusted person and to the police (xiii) Avoid risky places such as bars, night clubs and casinos.

Necessary skills for avoiding risky behaviors, practices and situations

It can be difficult to avoid risky situations, behaviors and practices without having some skills.

 

The following are the necessary skills needed to avoid risky situations, behaviours and practices

(i)    Quickly recognize the risky situations

(ii)    Occupy yourself with positive activities

(iii) Be confident and strong

(iv) Learn to assert yourself

(i)    Quickly recognize the risky situations

Survey the environment you are in and identify any risks. For example, be alert when a friend of opposite sex insists that you should go to his/her room when you are alone or you should talk in isolated place or accept a drink from a person you don’t know. Also learn the environment to see if there is any danger like bhang smokers’ drunkards and take action.

(ii)    Be confident and strong

Do not easily get influenced if a person pressures you. Feel sure about yourself and believe that you can do something yourself successfully. Avoid risk situations or practices by having a few numbers of friends who are well mannered, avoid watching sex movies or staying with bad mannered friends.

(iii) Occupy yourself with positive activities.

Do not stay idol, engage yourself in activities such as sports, gardening, jogging and reading. This will relax your mind, improve your health and prevent you from engaging yourself in risky situation, behaviors and practices.

(iv) Learn to assert yourself.

Listen to the requester without interrupting and say a firm “NO” even if it means to lose a friend or service. If the requester does not want to accept your answer, tell him/her that you will not change your mind. You do not need to explain any reason, just say no.

– Importance of curative health care for STIs, STDs or HIV/ADS and opportunistic diseases AIDS has neither a vaccine nor cure so far, However, opportunistic diseases associated with it and some STDs can be treated and cured. Therefore,

 

People who suspect that they have STIs, STDs or HIV/AIDS should seek medical care as soon as possible for the following reasons.

(i)    Early testing and treatment help to treat or slow down the development of the infection or disease in its early stages.

(ii)    Proper treatment can save life and prevent long-term effects such as infertility

(iii)    Health care professionals can give appropriate counselling on how to manage the infections and diseases and how to avoid re-infection.

(iv)    Testing gives peace of mind. It can confirm whether one is infected or not, instead of worrying and guessing what the problem could be.

(v)    Proper health care reduces the chances of infecting other people

(vi)    If you are found HIV positive, at some stage you will be given with Anti-Retro Viral Drugs (ARVs) so as to slow down the advancement of the condition

(vii)    Treating opportunistic diseases relieves suffering and pain and prolongs life.

(viii)    Healthcare professionals can give appropriate guidance on how to enhance good health practices in order to prevent further infections and damages. These practices may include: proper nutrition, abstaining from sexual intercourse and doing regular exercise.

 

PLWHA stands for People Living with HIV and AIDS

CARE AND SUPPORT FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)

People living with HIV and AIDS can live healthy lives for a long time if they get proper care and support. But also, people with HIV/AIDS are normally very weak and helpless, therefore we should give them special care and support as follows;

(i)    Giving them a balanced diet

(ii)    Allowing them to rest when they feel unwell

(iii)    Taking them to the health center as soon as they start development signs of illness.

(iv)    Keeping their rooms and environment clean

(v)    Make them as comfortable as possible by keeping their beddings clean and dry.

(vi)    Try to relieve any pain they may be feeling by giving them pain relievers (pain killers)

(vii)    Spend time with them, don’t leave them alone for a long time

(viii)    Behaving in loving way towards them and not judgmental

(ix)    Listening to them and helping them when they have problems

(x)    Providing them with ARVs which help to slow down the progression of the condition

(xi)    Counselling them to stop behaviors1 that could worsen their condition, for example taking drugs or having many sexual partners

(xii)    Keeping their bodies, clothing and bedding clean.

(xiii)    Avoid discriminating or stigmatizing them

Stigmatization/discrimination

Is the habit of disrespecting, calling bad names or using bad language to people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA).

Ways in which PLWHA are discriminated

The following are various ways through which PLWHA are discriminate

(i)    Branding them with bad names such as walking corpse

(ii)    Denying them work opportunities

(iii)    Denying them education or health services

(iv)    Chasing them away from home

(v)    Staying away from them

(vi)    Refusing to share utensils or rooms with them

(vii)    Not involving them in decision making

(viii)    Hiding them from the public

 

Importance of providing care and support to PLWHA

(i)    It saves life

(ii)    It brings hope and encouragement to PLWHA

(iii)    It reduces depression and self-dislike

(iv)    It promotes good health

(v)    It gives peace of mind

(vi)    It reduces fear of death and gives long life

(vii)    It gives strength to work and comfort

The effects of discrimination /stigmatization to PLWHA

(i)    Leads to depression

(ii)    Leads to loneliness

(iii) Leads to loss of hope

(iv)    Leads to poor health

(v)    Leads to hastened death

(vi)    Leads to poor performance at work and school

 

Precautions to be taken when handling people living with HIV/AIDS

When handling people living with HIV/AIDS we must take precautions so as to avoid being infected. These precautions include.

(i)    Avoid touching the body fluids of the patient such as blood, stool and urine with bare hands.

(ii)    Wear disposal gloves when handling faeces, urine, vomiting or blood from PLWHA

(iii)    Wear gloves or the plastic bag when cleaning sick person or his/her clothes or beddings

(iv)    Do not share sharp tools like needles, razor blades

(v)    Keep the clothes and beddings with blood, diarrhea or body fluids away from other washings

(vi)    Keep the clothes and beddings with blood, diarrhea or body fluids away from other washings.

(vii)    Keep any wound clean and covered.

 

BASIC QUESTIONS

1.    (a) Explain the meaning of HIV, AIDS, STIs and STDs

(b)    Explain the causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, effects and preventive and control measures of HIV/AIDS, STIs and STDs (Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Candidiasis, Trichomoniasis, Genital herpes, Hepatitis B and Chlamydia).

2.    (a) With examples explain the meaning of risky behaviours

(b)    Explain ways of avoiding/preventing risky situations, risky behaviours and practices

(c)    Demonstrate necessary skills for avoiding risky behaviours

(d)    Explain the importance of curative health care for STIs and opportunistic diseases.

– Early health care seeking habit

– The importance of early medical testing and treatment

3.    (a) Explain the importance of providing care and support to PLWHA in the family community and at school.

(b)    Explain the effects of discrimination and stigma to PLWHA to individual, family and society.

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