Geography NECTA Questions with Answers 2005 – 2022

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Geography NECTA Questions with Answers 2005 – 2022

Geography NECTA Questions with Answers 2025 – 2022 | NECTA (The National Examinations Council of Tanzania) is Government Institution which was established by the Parliamentary Act No. 21 of 1973 responsible for the administration of all National Examinations and Assessments in Tanzania. Geography is one of seven core subjects at ordinary level in Tanzania.

NECTA 2005

SECTION A (25 marks)

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the item (i) ___ (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

i). The earth’s shape is flattened sphere which is called

a). Ekman spiral b) geoid c) globe d) galax e) spherical

ii) ____ occur when three heavenly bodies are in one line and one of them being the source of light.

a). Solar system    b) equinox     c) eclipse

d) solstice    c) solar radiation

iii) The secretary General of the UN addressed the world from New York (750W 420N) at 7:30 pm Tuesday .At what time and day will people in Dar Es salaam (450E 060S) here the same speech.?

a).3:30 a.m .Wednesday     b) 12:30 p.m .Tuesday

c)11:30 p.m Wednesday    d) 3:30 pm Wednesday

e) 8:30 p.m Tuesday

iv) The temperature at Moshi 950 meters is 240C .What will the temperature be at Uhuru Peak 5,895 metres above sea level?.

(a) 32 0 C        b) -8 0 C         c) -24 0 C d) 180 C

e) 5.670 C

v) when two forces act away from each laterally ,they are called

a) lateral forces     b) orogenic forces     c)vertical forces

d)compression forces e)tension forces

vi)A delta which is found in a lake is called _____ delta .

a)radial    b) lacustrine     c)alluvial d) arcute

e)bird’s foot

vii)A natural outflow of water from the surface rock is known as

a) Oasis     b)Stream    c)artesian well     d)spring e)aquifer.

viii) When seval rivers drain into a depression they form a drainage system called ____ drainage

a) radial        b)superimposed     d)trellised e)centripetal f)dendritic

ix)A soluble rock with jointed structure resembling a wall is called.

a)granite     b) grike     c)basalt d)limestone

e) clint

x) The barysphere of the earth is made up of

a)silca and magnesium b)silca and aluminium

c)iron and nickel     d)iron and zinc

e)iron and aluminium.

2. Match the phrases in LIST A with the responses in LIST B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number

3.State three (3) mechanisms developed by plants to adopt themselves to drought conditions

NECTA 2005 ANSWERS.

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix X
B C A E E B D E D C

2.

I ii iii Iv v
D I A E G

3.(a) Drought conditions these are areas with little or few vegetations and low amount of rainfall example of these areas are those found around the desert areas like sahara, Atacama, Kalahari desert also in some regions of Tanzania like Geita, Dodoma region,Tabora region,Singida region etc.The following are mechanisms developed by plants to adopt themselves to drought conditions.

1. They have long tap roots systems which helps them to deep at great depth to absorb water.

2. They have thick barks which prevents water loss by evaporation and transpiration.

3. They have very few leaves to minimize the surface area for water loss through stomata

4. They shed off their leaves during dry seasons so as to prevent the loss of water through transpiration

5. They have thorns to minimize transpiration.

6. The stomata are located below the leaves to minimize the process of transpiration

7. They have reduced the size of leaves to minimize transpiration.

NECTA 2007

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i)- (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) Clay as a parent rock can be classified as—–rock.

A pervtous     B porous C permiable D impermiable E permeable and impermiable

(ii)Circular depressions which are formed by glaciations in the highlands are

A caldera B craters     C Cirques     D hanging valleys

E arêtes.

(iii)A drainage pattern, which looks like a tree with its branches is called

A trellised     B dendritic     C radial     D centripetal

E annular.

(iv)The second layer of the earth’s crust is known as

A sial         B Sima      C mantle D core     E gotenburg gap.

(v)Wadis, Bajada, Buttes and Mesa are the examples of—–features.

A wind erosion and deposition     B glacial erosion and deposition

C wave erosion and deposition D desert water erosion and deposition

E river erosion and deposition

(vi)Which one of the following combinations form chemical weathering?

A Organic acid and weak carbonic acid. B Temperature change

and frost action. C Exfoliation and carbonation. D Mud flow and land slides. E Organic acid and temperature change.

(vii)A vertical feature formed out of the solidification of magma within the earth’s crust is called

A phacolith     B sill     C dyke D lopolith E lacolith.

(viii)A coral reef with circular elliptical shape enclosing a lagoon is called

A fringing reef         B barrier reef C lagoon

D atoll

E planktons

ix).If the temperature at 500 metres where the tourists start climbing mount Kilimanjaro is 20° C. What will be the temperature when they reach 2,000 metres abovesea level?

A 10° C.     B .50C        C.11° C.     D 12° C. E 15° C

(x)The process in which a river renews its erosion in its valley

is called

A regime     B .rejuvenation     C ·capture D.cavitation

E abrasion

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct responses beside the item number.

LIST A LIST B
i).The gallax from which the solar system containing the planet earth is found A.Atmosphere
ii).A large area on the earth’s surface with uniform characteristics of temperature ,rainfall and vegetation B.Ozone layer
iii).A thin blanket of air surrounding the earth C.Compressional force
iv).A process that cause the wrinkling of the earth’s surface rocks . D.Tensional force
v).The destruction of rocks by temperature changes E.Milk way
F.Andromedal spit
G.Weathering
H.Erosion
I.Natural region
J.Equatorial climate

3.Explain the formation of barchans and seif dunes.

ANASWERS NECTA 2007

1.

i ii iii Iv V vi vii viii ix x
D C B B D A C D C B

2.

i ii Iii iv V
E I A C G

3.Barchans this name has its origin in a Turkish word barkhan which refers to crescent –shaped (moon shaped) mound of sand deposits found in deserts.

Barchans is formed when sands are deposited on any obstals like tree, big stones in the path of the wind.

Seif dunes these are also known as longitudinal dunes.seif dunes are ridges of sand that lies parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds.They are common in Egypt and Libya as well as in central Namib desert.

Diagram of sand dunes

GEOGRAPHY NECTA QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 2005 - 2022

NECTA 2008

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. For each of the items (i)- (x), choose the correct answer among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)The choice of suitable site and location for a weather station includes

A. permanent place for recording the data

B. more vegetation and relief

C .rain gauge, thermometer and barometer

D .fairly level ground and open space

E. flatland and thermometer.

(ii)Testing of nuclear, dynamite and mining explosions are greatly associated to forces.

A endogenic     B exogenic     C artificial     D explosive

E endogenetic

(iii)Geography is a multi-disciplinary subject because it

A is very much related to Geology

B cuts across other disciplines

C is a tool of understanding the universe

D involves studies of physical and human activities only

E deals with physical environment only.

(iv)The earth’s interior is inaccessible and very hot, the knowledge about it is through

A bore hole drillings     B evidence of earthquake waves

C .the study of crust, mantle and core     D continental and oceanic movements

E oceanic floor and the core.

(v)If Morogoro town has a temperature of 25°C, what will this temperature be in fahrenheit?

A 77°F         B .32 °F.     C 41 0F      D 212 °F E     97 °F

(vi)Tilting of the electricity poles and fences on slopes are works of

A weathering     B denudation     C steepness of the slope    D mass wasting         E deposition.

(vii) soil is heavy, has minute air spaces, holds much water, is difficult to cultivate, dries up and forms a hard surface.

A Loam         B Clay     C Silt     D Sand         E Volcanic

(viii)The best major feature of the ocean floor for fishing activities is

A continental shelf B oceanic plain     C oceanic deep D.continental slope         E oceanic island.

(ix)Decline of food production and increase in droughts, floods and shortages of hydro electric power supply are attributed to

A social and economic development

B problems of climatic changes

C impact of reduction of erosion

D development of science and technology

E diseases and pests control.

(x)Which of the following show the natural vegetation found in Tanzania?

A. Coniferous, Mediterranean and mountains

B .Forest, tropical grassland and thickets

C. Temperate, tropical and deciduous grasslands

D. Savannah, equatorial grassland and tundra

E .Tundra, maritime and grassland

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct answer beside the item number

LIST A LIST B
i). wind which blows more frequently in a particular region A.Trade wind
ii).The amount of water vapour in the atmosphere B.Dew
iii).There is decrease of temperature by 0.60C per 100M C.When one ascends the mountain
iv) .Lines drawn having the same amount of clouds D.Relative humidity
v).A collection of small droplets of water. E.Prevailing wind
F.Isohels
G.Humidity
H.When one descend the mountain
I.Hail
J.Isoneph

3 a)Define soil profile using the knowledge you have studied on soil.

b) with the aid of a labelled diagram illustrate soil profile

c).Explain four ( 4) factors that influence the development of soil profile

ANSWERS NECTA 2008

1.

i ii iii Iv v vi vii viii ix x
D C B C A D B A B B

2.

i Ii iii iv V
E G C J B

3.(a) soil profile is the vertical section arrangement of soil from the top layer of the soil to the bottom .Layers are arranged from A –horizon to D-horizon.

3 (b) Diagram showing soil profile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c ) Four factors that influence the development of soil profile are.

i. Nature of parent rocks

ii. Climate

iii. Relief(topography)

iv. Organisms

v. Time

NECTA 2009

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

I.For each of the items (i)-(x) choose the correct answer from among the givenalternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)The solar system is made up of

A sun, planets and interplanetary gases

B atmosphere and hydrosphere

C planets, clouds and gases

D clouds, wind and gases

E sunlight, gases, wind and clouds.

(ii) If the time recorded at town X, 45°E was 9.00 a.m. what could be the longitude of Y at 3.00 a.m.

A 90°W         B 45°W     C l5°E         D .90°E E 75°W

iii). Lunar eclipse occurs because

A. the moon comes between the earth and the sun

B. the earth comes between the moon and the sun

C.the earth rotates from west to east

D the sun comes between the moon and the earth

E the moon, the earth and the sun are in rotation.

(iv) About 98% of the matter making the sun is

A. light and Heat

B .heavier elements

C. stars and other heavenly bodies

D. lighter elements of hydrogen and helium

E. gases, heat and sun rays.

(v) Absence of drainage on the surface in the limestone region is the direct result of

A very low rains in the area

B. presence of swallow holes

C the big rivers which swallow small rivers

D presence of deep gorges

E presence of sound and big pores.

(vi) The following are marine depositional features:

A. Beach, lagoons and sand spits

B. Beach, fringing reef and stump

C. Beach, stump and atoll

D. Tombolo, delta and headland

E. Headland, geo and stacks.

(vii) Why do two different countries located in different latitudes or hemispheres experience similar type of natural vegetation? It is because of

A. their positions which are very far

B. similar traditions of the people living in those areas

C. the same type of climate

D. same on shore prevailing winds

E. fertile soils, good cloud cover and rains.

(viii) ……… shows the soil’s grain size.

A Soil texture     B Soil structure

C Soil morphology     D. Particle density

E Soil profile

(ix) Temperate cyclones are characterized as follows:

A They are instruments with cycles for measuring temperature

B Have long hours of high temperature

C They are temperate winds which have a high speed

D They are low pressure centres which develop in temperate Latitudes

E. They are strong temperate rains in the United States of America, Africa and the Congo basin.

(x) A vertical cross-section of the soil showing its horizons is called

A. soil erosion         B. soil porosity C .soil profile

D .soil PH

E. soil catena.

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response besides the item

number.

LIST A LIST B
i).intervisibility A.It it determine the distance of a cross – section
ii).A basin B.Weather station
iii).Glaciation C.A catchment area of a river
iv).Denudation D.Ox- bow lake
v).Stevenson’s screen E.One of the sources of a river
F.A screen showing precipitation
G.Batholith
H.Weathering and erosion
I.Movement of the earth
J.The ability to see between two given points

3.With the aid of diagrams ,explain the types of moraines.

ANSWERS NECTA 2009

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii Ix x
A B B D B A C A D C

2.

I ii iii Iv V
J C E H B

3.Moraine s are rocks particles which are transported by the moving ice/glacier.The following are the types of moraines

(i). Englacial moraines that are within the glacier. Rocks particles are carried within the glacier

(ii). Sub glacier moraines carried at the bottom of glacier.

(iii). Terminal moraines carried towards the ends; debris deposited towards the moving ice.

(iv). Lateral moraines. carried along the side of the moving ice.

(v). Medial moraines occur when two moraines meets at the centre center valley

(v) Dead moraine ,carried at the end of terminal .Is where the glacier activity ends .

(vi). Recessional moraines ,occur when the deposited moraines retreat back (moves backwards.

(vii). Interlobate moraines ,is found towards the margins ,are kinds of unconsolidated materials and located within the fractures of rocks.

(viii). Ground moraines ,found towards the ends sides and are much fine in size they are compressed due to the pressure of glacier.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NECTA 2010

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (ii) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number

i). Crater lakes are likely to be formed in

A. areas of fold mountains

B. intensively faulted areas

C. downwarped areas

D. regions where subsides is taking place

E. areas of active volcanicity

ii).which one of the following is not associated with earthquakes?

A.Body waves        B.Geysers    C.Richter scale

D.Seismograph    E.Focus

iii).If the time at town X 150E is 12.00 noon, what could be the longitude of town Y if it is 8.00 a.m?

A.150W        B.300E        C.450W        D.300W

E.450E

iv).which of the following ,by origin and composition is not a form of igneous rocks?

A.Sill    B.Gypsum    C.Lava plain D.volcano E,Granite

v).One of the following features is a product of weathering:

A.Earth pillar        B.Gully        C.Rilly

D.Hotspring        E.Soil creep

vi).The process of river erosion where fragments are worn out during collision against each other is termed as

A.hydraulic action    B.attrition

C.abrasion     D.corrosion

E.hydrolysis

vii).A a scale of 4cm representing 18 km on the ground will be represented by representative fractions (R.F) scale as

A.1:900000        B.1:1800000        C.1:450000    D.2:900000    E.1:10000

Viii).Which one of the following owes its origin to deflation?.

A.Qattara depression         B.Lake Turkana

C.Tekekitarn            D.Lake Chad

E.Lake Victoria

ix).The presence of paired terraces on both sides of a river valley indicates that

A.River capture has taken place        B.Lateral erosion is dominant    C.Sea level has risen    D.Rejuvenation has taken place

E.Truncated spurs have retreated

x).A good example of intrusive igneous rock is

A.gneiss    B.basalt        C.gabbro

D.marble    E.limestone

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in LIST B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number

LIST A LIST B
i).saucer – shaped structure of permeable rock lying between two impermeable rocks A.Deflation
ii).A process by which wind transport loose materials B.shore
iii).Part of the land lies between high water and low water C.soil porosity
Iv).A volcano made of viscous lava D.saltation
v).one of the components of soil E.coastline
F.Artesian basin
G.Composite cone
H.Inorganic matter
I.Aquifer
J.Cummulo dome

3.a) what is meant by marine erosion?

b)Describe four (4) processes which are involved in marine erosion.

ANSWERS NECTA 2010

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
E B C B A B C A D B

2.

I ii iii Iv v
F A B J H

3.(a) Marine erosion Refers to the erosion of the coastal areas which is caused by the action of the moving ocean waves and currents. Wave is the up and down movement of water in the ocean. Waves movements are of two types namely swash which is the sending movement of waves and backwash which is the returning movementnt of waves.

(b) The following are the four processes involved in marine erosion.

  1. Hydraulic action, the process involves the breaking of the rocks by involving the force of water waves at the cliff
  2. Abrasion /corrosion is the sand paper effect of loss materials being scraped along the bare rock.This is the process which uses rocks particles as an erosion tool where rocks particles tends to collide with the coastal rocks .In this process the rocks particles can sometimes rubs against the surface where they are transported.
  3. Solution/corrosion is the process which involves eroding the rocks by dissolving them in water. It is
    mainly occur on the rocks which can easily dissolve in water like mineral salts,limestones.
  4. Attrition occur when rocks particles collides against one another and becomes smaller in their size.

NECTA 2011

Answer all questions in this section.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) One of the following features is a characteristic of coniferous forests:

A Trees are made up of hard wood

B .stands

C.Trees favour high temperatures

D .Trees have broad leaves

E.Trees grow in a few years.

(ii)The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) means

A a region of low pressure

B a region of doldrums

C a region of high pressure

D a sub-tropical high pressure belt

E a region with high speed winds.

(iii)Rias often provide natural harbour because they are

A found along the sub-merged coast.

B mainly found in Europe where the sea is shallow

C deep outlets of water along the coast

D not deep, ships can approach the ports easily

E similar to lagoons but have shallow depths.

(iv)If the local time at town X (30°E 45°N) is 5.00 p.m. Monday, what will the time be at town y (15°W 50°S)?

A.2 a.m. Monday    B.8.p.m. Monday C.2.P.M .Monday

D.3.pm Monday        E.2.pm Sunday

v)The following are instruments used in chain and tape survey:

A .Barometer, pegs, notebook, compass

B .Tape measure, chain, cross staff, anemometer

C .Chain, arrows, ranging poles, altimeter

D .Arrows, ranging poles, pegs, chain

E .Cross staff, notebook, chain and plane table.

(vi) When the river flows in its long profile it performs the following geological activities:

A. Moves fast and can carry everything on the earth’s surface

B. Erodes, transports and deposits weathered materials

C.Meanders and forms ox-bow lakes throughout the profile

D.Does three functions such as abrasion, solution and attrition

E .Acts as agent of weathering and erosion along the profile.

(vii) If the location of a point on a map is given by grid reference 365490, then

A .365 are Degrees B 365 are Longitudes

C.490 are northings D.490 are eastings

E365 are Northings.

(viii) The following are the elements of weather:

A. Soils, clouds, dew, humidity, rainfall

B .Fog, barometer, humidity, pressure, air mass

C .Clouds, sunshine, pressure, humidity, thermometer

D. Pressure, clouds, sunshine, humidity, winds

E. Pressure, humidity, soils, fog.

(ix)Which one of the following is not an outcome of the rotation of the earth on its own axis?

A Deflection of winds and ocean currents

B Difference of one hour between two meridians 15° apart

C Day and night

D Seasons of the year

E Sunrise and sunset.

(x) Landforms formed by vulcanicity can be divided into

A Many parts according to the nature of lava

B Sills, dykes, valleys and earthquakes only

C Volcanic mountains and sills only

DExtrusive and intrusive features

EBatholiths, dykes and volcano only.

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response besides the item number.

LIST A LIST B
i).Earth’s zone which is rich in Nickel and Iron A.Soil texture
ii).Erosional feature which is always formed in the young /upper stage of the river valley. B.Delta
iii).Consists of a huge canopy which limits the undergrowth C.Soil structure
iv).The feel of coarseness or softness of the individual soil particles D,Mantle
v).A planet in the solar system with the longest planet around the sun E.Jupiter
F. Coniferous forest
G. Core
H. Pluto
I. Tropical rainforest
J.Interlocking spurs

3. Soils may differ from one area to another but they share almost the same components. Describe the composition of soil.

ANSWERAS NECTA 2011

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
B B C C D B C D D D

2.

I ii iii Iv v
G J I A H

3.Soil is the thin uppermost layer of the earth’s crust which supports plants to grow and animal life.Soil may differ from one area but they share almost the same components.

Soil composition refers to the soil components or materials contained in the soil.soil shares the same components as follows.

Organic matters.Organic matter includes all remains of dead organisms (plants and animals)that hve been decomposed and mixed with soil mass.Part of the soil largely consisting of the organic matter is called humus.organic matter forms 5% of the total volume in the soil.,so all the soil must have organic matter.

Inorganic matter ,forms 45% of the total volume and is made up of minerals from the parent rocks .Minerals consists of different nutrients which are needed by plants.

Soil air ,contains air which forms 25% of the total soil components .Airs in the soil occurs in pores spaces of both macro and micro organisms.The amount of air depends on the size of the soil particles and the amount of water present in the soil body.soil air is used by living organisms for respiration processes.

Soil water ,soil contain water which is derived from rainfall,The amount of water in the soil is of 25% of the total volume .helps in weathering processes

Soil organisms ,the soil contains living organisms like maco and micro organisms good examples are rodents,earthworms,bacterias etc.

NECTA 2012

SECTION A (25marks)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.for each of the item (i) – (x) ,choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

i).The outer layer of the earth include:

A. Atmoshere ,Lithoshere and Troposhere

B. Atmosphere ,Troposhere and biosphere

C. Atmoshere ,Hydroshere and Biosphere

D. Atmoshere,Lithosphere and Biosphere

E. Atmoshere,Hydroshere and Lithoshere

ii).Which of the following is the effect of mass wasting

A.Frost action        B.Interlocking spurs

C.Rock fall        D.Exfoliation

E.Rock disintegration

iii). The column of clay capped by boulders formed due to rain action are known as:

A.soil creep        B.gullies    C.land slide

D.earth pillar        E.cuesta

iv). Which of the following features is formed by river erosion?

A.pot hole        B.ox –bow lake        C.delta

D.flood plain        E.lagoon

v). Rotation of the earth results to:

A.elliptical orbit    B.change of seasons

C.day and night         D.leap year    E.standard time

vi)._______ are good example of fold mountains in Africa.

A.Uluguru and Oldoinyo Lengai    B.Jos and Karoo

C.Elgon and Kilimanjaro        D.Atlas and Cape Ranges

E.Udzungwa and Kilimanjaro

vii). Which of the following is a process of wind erosion?

A. Abrasion        B.corrosion        C.Hydrolysis

D.Exfoliation        E.Hydraulic

viii). A great circle is a circle on a globe whose plane:

A.Passes through the centre of the globe

B.Has the shortest distance between two points

C.Is perpendicular with the globe

D.Marks a line of longitude

E.Marks a line of latitudes

ix). The intensity of an earthquake is measured by:

A. Epicentre        B.Seismograph

C.Richter scale        D.Chronometer

E.Merchalli scale

x). Soil texture refers to:

A.arrangement of soil particles

B.Size of the individual particles

C.soil catena

D.soil PH

E.grained structure

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number.

LIST A LIST B
i).The earth’s zone which is made up of nickel and iron A.Crust
ii).A wall like feature formed when a mass magma cuts across the bedding plane B.Lava
iii)The uppermost layer of the earth C.Magma
iv)A sheet of magma which lies along the bedding plane.
v).Magma which reaches the eath’s surface and solidifies to form extrusive features. D.Mode
E.Dyke
F.Sill
G.Core
H.Volcano
I.Batholith
J.Mantle

3.a). What is an earthquake?

b). Briefly explain five effects of earthquake.

c).Describe four ways of reducing the risks of earthquake.

ANSWERS NECTA 2012

1.

i Ii Iii iv v vi vii Viii ix x
C C D A C D A A B B

2.

i Ii Iii iv V
G E A F B

3.(a) Earthquake is the sudden earth movement or vibrasion in the earth crust.It originated from a point within the earth known as focus and it comes to appear to a point vertically above the focus known as epicenter this is a point of weaknesses where maximum destructions takes pace.Earthquake may be caused by vulcanisms,falling of objects from the atmosphere,tectonic plates movements ,construction of large water bodies ,mass wasting.etc

b) Five effects of earthquakemare

i. Loss of life and properties ,example earthquake in Uganda in 1966 killed 157 people,injuired 1300 people and destroyed about 6000 houses.Also in Tanzania( Bukoba Region) in 2016 it destroyed roads ,houses of people and made people homeless.

ii. Outbreak of fire in cities

iii. Migration of people

iv. Landslide

v. Outbreak of hunger and famine

vi. Formation of faults

vii. It causes tsunami in the oceans

viii. Causes psychological torture among people

ix. Create fear lives among the people

NOTE.Expain each point.

(c).Four ways of reducing the risks of an earthquake

i. Avoid building very tall structures like Towers

ii. Geologists should detect the epicenter and tell people to evacuate the areas which are likely to be affected with earthquake.

iii. To avoid construction of very large water bodies like kariba dam which can cause the earthquake due to the weight of water and other materials .

iv. Discouraging the use of explosives like dynamites in breaking the rocks during mining and constructions operations.

v. Building houses using light materials like bamboo trees which when falls cannot cause great effects.

vi. Building houses which moves with earthquake like those which are built in Japan.

vii. People should avoid building houses in areas which are prone to the occurrence of earthquake.

NECTA 2013

SECTIONA (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i)- (x), choose the correct answer

from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the beside the item number.

(i)A cirque is

A. an arm-chair shaped depression on a glaciated lowland area

B. an arm-chair shaped depression on the sides of a glaciated mountain

C. an arm-chair shaped depression in the desert areas

D. an arm-chair shaped valley in glaciated areas

E. an arm-chair shaped depression on the plateau.

(ii)A geyser can be described as

A. a hot spring

B .an explosion of volcanic vapour

C. a fountain of superheated water and steam

D. a thermal stream

E .a pool of hot water

(iii) .Which one of the following conditions is important for the growth of coral reefs?

A Warm and muddy river water

B .Warm and muddy sea water

C Warm and clear sea water

D Warm and clear tape water

E Warm and clear river water.

(iii) .A time accepted throughout a time zone of 15°

longitude is known as

A .local time             B noon time

C greenwich mean time        D sun time

E .S tandard time.

iv).Which sequence of the following processes is necessary for the formation of rainfall?

A. Condensation, cooling and evaporation

B. Evaporation, cooling and condensation

C. Evaporation, sedimentation, and cooling

D. Evaporation, condensation and cooling

E. Evaporation, cooling and sedimentation

(vi).Which of the following instruments is used to measure pressure?

A .Wet and dry bulb thermometer     B .Aneroid barometer

C .Anemometer             D. Rain gauge

E Hygrometer.

(vii). Faulting may lead to the formation of

A. rift valleys         B moraines    C.Ox –bow lake

D. boulder clays     E .yardangs.

viii) Which of the following statements is true of an equatorial region?

A It has. a small.annual range of temperature

B It has four rainfall maxima

C It experiences temperatures below 20°C

D .It has. a high annual range of temperature

E .It is found between 15° and 30° north and south of the equator.

•,

(ix)The earth’s crust is also known as

A. atmosphere     B. hydrosphere

C.Mantle        D .lithosphere

E .troposphere.

(x).What is the compass bearing of WNW?

A .270 o         B . 337 o C.3150

D. 327 o         E .292 o

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number.

i).A tidal wave formed as a result of an earthquake or volcanic eruption A.Compression
ii).Denser rocks that forms the ocean floor B.Dyke
iii).A force that causes the bending of the earth’s crust. C.Sial
iv).Intrusive volcanic feature formed horizontally along the bedding plane . D.Ocean currents
v).Formed when two caves on opposite sides of headland join up E.Faulting
F.Arch
G.Sima
H.Tsunami
I.Stack
J.Sill

3.With the aid of diagram, explain any five features formed by wave deposition.

ANSWERS NECTA 2013

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
B C C E B B A A D E

2.

I ii iii Iv v
H G A J F

3.Wave is the up and down movement of water in the ocean.wave deposition is the process which involves laying down of eroded materias by waves.Deposition is caused by the swash movement of the wave which is the sending movement of the materials along the coasts.So this is the constructive movements of waves because it adds the materials along the coasts.

The following are the features formed by waves deposition

(i).Tomolo .Is a ridge of sand which joins the island and the mainland.The group of these features are referred as Tomboli

Diagram

ii).Bay – bar is a ridge of sand which cut across the the bay.This can leads to the formation of lagoon.

Diagram

iii).long shore ,is a bar formed along the gentle slope coast and run parallel to it.

Diagram.

iv).spit is a ridge of sand which its one side join to the land and another side terminate into the sea.

Diagram

v).Barrier beach is a long ridge of sand running parallel to the coast and separated from it by a lagoon.

Diagram

vii).Beaches is the accumulation of loose materials example mud ,sand ,pebbles ,shingles on the shore of the sea.

Diagram.

viii).cuspate foreland is formed when two spits converges and joins at tips and it is a triangular in shape.

Diagram.

ix).Lagoon is a partially or completely enclosed shallow salt water body from the sea .It can formed at bay –bar,cuspate –foreland,dendritic drainage pattern,atoll.

Diagram

NECTA 2014

SECTION A (25 Mark s)

A nswer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHE MATICAL GEO GRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) , choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the booklet provided

i).Zeugens and yadangs differ in

A .position of the rock strata

B .position of the rock in the slope

C .place of formation

D .colour of the rock on which they are formed

E .the type of the rock on which they are formed

(ii).An old age stage of the river is called

A.Valley Stage    B.Torrent Stage

C.Plain Stage    D.Mature Stage

E.Youthful Stage.

(i ii)The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere occurs on

A.23rd september        B.21 st September

C.22nd December        D.2 l st March

E. 2 l st June.

(iv) A Stevenson ‘s box i s painted by white colour in Order to

A.improve insulation    B.be seen clearly

C.decorated it        D.allow thermometers to be placed

E .allow movement o f air .

( v).Astony desert is called

A.Hamada        B.Reg        C.Barchan

D.Erg            E.Rock pedestal.

(vi ) The temperature at Korogwe 950 metres is

240C. What is the temperature of Kilimanjaro 5895 metres above sea level?

A .340C .        B.5.670C.         C.18.10C

D.10.240C        E.320C

(vii) When two !ateral forces act away from each other are known as

A.horizontal forces        B.Orogenic forces

C .vertical forces         D.compression forces

E.Tension forces

(viii) Water vapour is turned into water droplets in the process known as

A .evaporation    B. convection

C .saturation        D. condensation

E transpiration.

(ix) Which of the following features produced by ice action is the result of both erosional and depositional activities?

A. Arête .            B. Hanging Valley .

C. Erratic             D. Cirque

E. Roche mountonee

(x).The name given to earthquake waves that travel within a crust is

A. focus    B .epicentre        C.seismic

D.surface waves.            E.Body waves

2.Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

LIST A LIST B
i). A mass of magma which has emerged on the earth’s surface. A.Laccolith
ii). A wall like feature formed when magma cuts across a bedding plane. B.caldera
iii). A sheet of magma which lies along a bedding plane C.Sills
iv). A very large mass of magma which often forms the root of a mountain. D.Volcano
v). A dome – shaped feature formed when magma push up the overlaying layer E.Lava
F.Crater
G.Dyke
H.Cone let
I.Batholiths
J.Lava cones

3.(a) Explain four mechanisms develops by plants in semi – arid regions to adopt drought conditions

(b) Describe the characteristics of equatorial forest.

ANSWERS NECTA 2014.

1.

i ii iii iv V vi vii viii ix x
A C E A B B E D C E

2.

i ii iii iv v
E G C I A

3.(a) Semi –arid Regions these are areas with little or few vegetations and low amount of rainfall example of these areas are those found around the desert areas like sahara ,Atacama ,Kalahari desert also in some regions of Tanzania like Geita ,Dodoma region,Tabora region,Singida region etc.The following are four mechanisms developed by plants in semi- arid areas to adopt the drought conditions.

1. They have long tap roots systems which helps them to deep at great depth to absorb water.

2. They have thick barks which prevents water loss by evaporation and transpiration.

3. They have very few leaves to minimize the surface area for water loss through stomata

4. They shed off their their leaves during dry seasons so as to prevent the loss of water through transpiration.

5. They have thorns to minimize transpiration.

6. The stomata are located below the leaves to minimize the process of transpiration

7. They have reduced the size of leaves to minimize transpiration.

b).Equatorial forests are the forests which found in areas with heavy rainfall throughout the year and low annual range temperature.These areas are found between 00 – 50North and south of the equator.The following are characteristics of tropical rain fprests;

i. They are evergreen throughout the year.

ii. They have little underground

iii. They forms a natural canopy

iv. The trees can grow up to 45 meters high.

v. There exists in areas of heavy rainfall which is convectional eg 2000mm

vi. The annual range of temperature is low eg 20c.

vii. They exists in areas with high humidity and clouds

viii. They exists in areas with high temperature.

NECTA 2015

SECTION A (25 Mark s)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) , choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the booklet provided.

i) Autumn, winter, spring and summer are the result of

A. monsoon        B. lunar eclipse

C. rotation         D. revolution

E. tides.

(ii) A large part of the Southern Hemisphere is covered by

A .land mass        B .volcanoes

C .water mass     D .dark clouds

E .ice.

(iii) The shallow part of the sea that stretches out from the coast is called

A .Continental shelf         B .Continental slope

C. Ocean ridge         D .Ocean trench

E .Island.

(iv) Which of the following is not a factor influencing temperature of a place?

A. Aspect.        B. Ocean current.

C. Altitude.         D. Eclipse.

E. Length of a day.

(v) The sideways erosion which widens the V-shaped valley is known as

A .vertical erosion     B. lateral erosion

C .headward erosion D. hydraulic action E. attrition.

vi) Deposition of soil materials removed from one horizon to another is called

A illuviation        B weathering

C eluviation         D organic sorting

E leaching.

(vii) Which of the following results to vertical movements within the earth’s crust?

A. Earthquake, faulting and volcanic eruptions.

B. Block mountains, raised beaches and broad basins.

C. Volcanic eruptions, rock fall and asymmetric folds.

D. Fold mountains, basins and asymmetrical folds.

E .Emerged coasts, over folds and faulting.

(viii) Which among the following features is the impact of water action in the desert?

A .Yardang        B .Gullies

C .Badlands         D .Sinkholes

E .Rock pedestals.

(ix) An active state of decomposition caused by soil micro organism is called

A. organic matter        B .soil water

C. mineral matter         D .soil air

E .soil components.

(x) Which of the following is associated with magnitude of an earthquake?

A .Richter scale        B .Seismography

C. Focus             D .Epicenter

E .Tsunami.

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in

List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

LIST A LIST B
(i) Residues that have decomposed and mixed with soil mass.

(ii) Status of soil with respect to amount of elements necessary for plants growth.

(iii) Removal of materials from surface of land.

(iv) Vertical section of the soil to the underlying rocks.

(v) Fineness and coarseness of soil particles.

A. Soil type

B. Soil profile

C. Loam soil

D. Soil texture

E. Soil structure

F. Soil fertility

G. Soil organic matters

H. Soil chemistry

I.Soil erosion

J. Soil water

K.Soil Air

3.With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe the internal structure of the earth.

ANSWERS NECTA 2015

1.

i Ii iii iv V vi vii viii ix x
D C A D B A B B A A

2.

I ii Iii Iv v
G F I B D

3.The earth is an oblate spheroid .It is composed of a number of different layers as determine by deep drilling and seismic evidences .These layers are.

i) The crust this layer is sometimes known as lithosphere.The word lithosphere is derived from the two Greek words “lithos” which means rock and “sphere “ which means layer.Crust is the solid and rigid outermost layer of the earth.Is a thinnest compared to other layers of the earth.

The earth’s crust is divided into two layers which are continental crust or sial and oceanic crust sometimes is called sima .Continental crust or sial forms the continents land masses .Sial is made up of of two minerals which are silica and aluminium ,sial is also known as continental crust.The name crust is derived from the first two layers of each of the two minerals example Si and al so si + al =sial

The oceanic crust or sima is a layer beneath the the sial or continental crust ,It forms the ocean floor is mainly composed of basalt rocks .Sima consists of minerals rich in silica and magnesium .The word sima is derived from the first two letters of each of the two minerals of silica and magnesium such that si + ma = sima.

The zone of separation between the sial and sima is called Conrad discontinuity at the bottom of sima there is a zone of separation known as mohorovicic discontinuity or simply moho ,it was named by the the geologist /seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic who discovered it in 1909 when studying the earthquake.

(ii). The mantle some times is called mesosphere is a layer found between the crust and the core ,this is a transitional zone to core ,is a largest of the three regions ,its thickness is 2900km and the density is between 3.0 to 3.3 gms/cc .The density increases with depth ,mantle is divided into two main layers upper and lower mantle ,the upper mantle lies between crust this layer combine with the crust and forms a large layer known as lithisphere ,its temperature is about 16000cand the common minerals are magnesium silicates.

The lower mantle is below the upper mantle ,rocks in this layer exists in solid states this is due to the high pressure caused by the underlying rocks materials and its temperature is 3,7000C ,the common minerals in this layer are magessium ,silicon and iron.The upper and the low manle are separated by the semi moltend elastic layer called asthernosphere which balances the materials of the earth known as isostatic readjustmant.

Mantle is separated from the core by a sharp boundary called the Gutenberg discontinuity it is named after a German born American seismologist Beno Gutenberg who discovered it in 1914.

(iii).The core this layer is also known as barysphere or centrosphere it extend from the Gutenberg discontinuity to the centre of earth ,is about 3,500km ,this means that the earth’s core is bigger than the planet mars.

Core is divided into two layers outer and inner core .outer core is very hot and molten (liquid) rock materials that is composed of mainly iron and nickel .The temperature is about 37000C and is about 2,300km thock.

Inner core is about 1200km thick ,the temperature here is highest up to 5,5000C ,rock materials however remain in a solid state because high pressure and high density ,the main minerals are iron and nickel (NIFE


 

 

 

 

NECTA 2016

SECTION A (25 Mark s)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) , choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the booklet provided.

i) The speed of the earthquake waves in the earth is changed at a line called

A.Mohorovic discontinuity B.Gutenberg discontinuity

C.Tectonics             D.Equinox

E.Isostatic

ii).Liverpool term scored a goal at 5.00pm in England (150 w) .At what time the goal was scored in Dar Es Salaam (450E)?

A.1.00pm        B.7.00PM    C.9.45 PM

D.9.00 P.M        E.6.30 A.M

iii).The sun is overhead at tropic of Capricorn every year on.

A.22ndDecember        B.21stMarch

C.23rdSeptember        D.21stJune

E.24thMarch

iv).Day reaches its maximum length on 21stJune in

A.Southern hemisphere    B.Northern Hemisphere

C.Arctic Circle            D.Polar Region

E.Tropic of Capricorn

v).Which of the following planets have small celestial bodies in orbits around them?

A.mercury ,Jupiter and Uranus B.Pluto ,Earth and Mars

C.Earth ,Jupiter and Saturn     D.Mercury ,Venus and Earth

E.Venus ,Earth and Saturn

vi).Deposition of soil materials removed from one horizon to another is called

A.Convex sided        B.Concave sided

C.Gentle sided resistance     D.Steep sided resistance

E.Steep sided non resistance

vii).The excessive strong wind blowing across an extensive ocean surface is called.

A.Tsunami         B.Ocean currents    C. Strong surge

D.Hurricane        E.Wind

viii).Rainfall that occurs when the air moves towards a hill or mountain is called

A.Cyclonic         B.Orographic        C.Convectional

D.Showers        E.Typhoon.

ix).Mountains can be classified on the basis of

A.Their importace         B.Their surroundings

C.Their composition        D.Their formation

E.Their heights

x).A channel diverging from from the main river and flows into the sea or a lake by separate mouth is called.

A.Tributary        B.Stream    C.Distributaries

D.River basin        E.Water shade

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in

List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

LIST A LIST B
i).water that flows out of the ground

ii).water that seep out of rocks and into the rock hole

iii).water that enters the rocks of the earth’s surface .

iv).Interaction of water vapour ,precipitation,infiltration,run –off ,evaporation and condensation.

v)Water that is saturated in permeable rock.

  1. Stalagmite
  2. Doline
  3. Water cycle
  4. Artesian basin
  5. Aquifer
  6. Uvala
  7. Spring
  8. Ground water
  9. Juvenile water
  10. Bore holes
  11. Well

3.(a)Describe discordant drainage systems

(b)Explain the process of river transport and describe four ways in which a river transports its load

NECTA 2016 ANSWERS

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii Ix X
A D A C C C D B D C

2.

i ii iii iv v
G K H C E

3.(a) Discordant drainage system refers to the system that is opposed to the dominant structure Or is a type of drainage system that does not resemble to the rock structure (geological structure cover which it flows).It means the river system is not defined by the structure of rocks There are main two types of discordant drainage systems.

(i)Superimposed drainage which is described as a river valley that developed on a former cover of rocks and which is now superimposed onto a previous buried and completely different rocks structure to which it is discordant this means the flows into new layer after eroding the old rock where it does not affected with this new layer so the river continues flowing in its direction without being disturbed with the new layer.

Diagram

(ii)Antecedent drainage .Described as a river valley that develops on a former landscape later uplifted by local earth movements, but which was able to maintain its course by eroding vertically at a rate that was fast enough to keep pace with the rising land.

Diagram

(b).River transport is the process in which a river carries materials from one place to another,specifically from highland to lowland areas.

The following are the processes of river transport

i. The larger the river the greater amount of energy available for transporting the load .Although it must also be remembered that large river corresponds to larger load.

ii. A river load includes weathered debris from the valley side and rock particles eroded from the bottom and side of the channel.

iii. The load carrying ability of the river is also indicated by its competence .Competence is defined as the largest particles the river can move and it varies with speed and volume of water. Only during the flood rivers are competent to transport large boulders.

iv. Stream load is important since it affects the rate of erosion, greater roads reduces the erosive power and leads to deposition.

( c) Four ways in which a river transport loads.

i. Traction involves transporting loads by rolling on the bed of the river or is the transportation of heavier load like boulders and larger rocks particles by rolling on a bed of a river valley .

ii. Saltation involves the bouncing of small particles along the bed .Transport rocks particles in short jumps.

iii. Suspension the movement of very fine particles held up by turbulence of the water. Is the transportation of the fine and light particles which do not touch the river bed.

iv. Solution the movement of materials by dissolving them in water. materials are transported at a very long distances because are dissolved in water example rock salts and others.

NECTA 2017

SECTION A (25 Mark s)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) , choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the booklet provided.

i).The luminous body which provides energy to the solar system is

A.sun            B.Earth        C.Moon

D.Planet        E.Satellite

ii).The earth’s layer which consists of sial and sima is called.

A.Lithospere     B.Hydrosphere    C.Stratosphere

D.Atmoshere    E.Thermosphere

iii). Which of the following is a process of wearing down the rock surface by wind where the load becomes cutting tools?.

A.Deflation        B.Attrition        C.Abrasion

D.Corrasion        E.Hydration

iv).The renewed power of erosion of a river is called.

A.River capture         B.River erosion

C.River rejuvination     D.River meanders

E.River basin.

v).Prediction of the state of atmosphere in a region for 24 to 48 hours is known as

A.Weather elements     B.Weather report

C.Weather instrument    D.Weather station

E.Weather forecasting

vi)The process through which rain water enters the ground is called.

A.Evaporation    B.Infiltration        C.Transpiration

D.Transpiration    E.Condensation

vii).The process of changing granite to gneiss rock is known as

A.Sedimentation    B.Vulcanism        C.Denudation

D.Metamorphism    E.Exfoliation

viii)Which of the following is another name for savanna climate in Africa?

A.Tropical maritime        B.Warm temperate maritime

C.Tropical grassland     D.Warm temperate desert

E.Cool temperate western margin.

ix).The process of peeling off and falling of rock mass is called

A.Disintegration     B.Weathering     C.Mass wasting

D.Erosion         E.Exfoliation.

x).Which of the following are features of the ocean floor?

A.Basin,ocean deep and cliff

B.Trench ,continental shelf and stump

C.Trench,Ridge and Ocean deep

D.Ocean deep ,continental shelf and Drumlin.

E.Basin,Continental shelf and Tombolo.

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in

List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

LIST A LIST B
i).Removal of loose materials from the rocks by the force of moving water.

ii).Fine and light particles moved by wind.

iii).Dissolved soluble minerals which are found in rocks by flowing river water.

iv).Tearing away of blocks of rocks which have become frozen into the sides or bottom of a glacier

v).swash carries pebbles and other rock fragments from the shore of the ocean.

A.Corrasion

B.Plucking

C.Hydraulic

D.Siltation

E.Deposition

F.Attrition

G.Exfoliation

H.Abrasion

I.Solution

J.Suspension

3.(a) Define the term soil.

(b) Briefly explain four importance of soil to human life ( c).Mention three sources of soil nutrients.

ANSWERS NECTA 2017

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
A A C C E B D C E C

2.

i ii iii iv v
C J I B E

3(a). Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth which is capable of supporting the vegetations to grow.

(b) The following are the importance of soil

Soil is used for agriculture ,the soil is the only natural resource which supports crops to grow like beans,maize,cotton,millets,bananas,rubber etc can only be supported by plants to grow.

The soil provides habitats for some living organisms like bacteria ,eartworms ,snakes,rodents ,rabbits hence without soil all these organisms mentioned and many others could be in danger if not disappearing.

Soil contains the valuabe minerals example gold ,iron,copper,diamond which can be extracted and provide employments to the people as well as foreign currency to the government.

The soil provide building materials example materials like sand ,limestone can be used for building houses,bridges and so on.

Soil provide employment to the people example can be sold to the markets so that can be eaten by man also people can get employment by working in sand collection as well as in agriculture.

Soil is used for pots making which are useful for domestics purposes like cooking ,pots are made up of clay soil.

Soil is used as food to human being ,as pregnancy women uses soil as it believed to have some mineral substances useful for their bodies demands.

Soil is used for decoration in most of the tribes like Makonde tribe in Tanzania as a part of their culture their tends to decorates themselves ,also when people playing some local dances use soil to decorates their bodies.

Soil hold underground water ,water are found in the soil pore spaces .

(c ) Sources of soil nutrients are

i. Industrial fertilizers

ii. Animals wastes like cows, manure

iii. Decayed and decomposed matters that are found in the soil

iv. Nitrogen fixations by the bacteria found in the soil .

NECTA 2018

SECTION A (25 Mark s)

Answer all questions in this section

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.For each of the items (i) – (x) , choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the booklet provided.

i) Which of the following instrument is used to measure maximum and minimum temperature?.

A.Barometer     B.Thermometer C.Anemometer

D.Six’s thermometer E.Hydrometer

ii) Which among the following is an extrusive volcanic feature?

A.Crater         B.Laccolith        C.Batholith

D.Sill            E.Dykes

iii).One of the factors for soil formation is

A.Organic matter    B.Mineral matter

C.Time        D.Water

E.Air

iv).The layer of the atmosphere which is nearest to the earth’s surface is called

A.Troposhere    B.Stratoshere    C.Hydroshere

D.Mesoshere    E.Thermoshere

v).Which among the following is a heavenly body that possesses and transmits its own light?.

A.Moon        B.Sun        C.Earth

D.Asteroid        E.Planet.

vi).A region which consists of thick forests ,trees dwellers and people who engage in cultivation of rubber,cocoa ,bananas and oil palms is known as

A.Tropical savanna    B.Tropical monsoon

C.Polar climate        D.Mediterranean

E.Equatorial

vii)An instrument used to determine Magnetic North is called.

A.Stevenson screen    B.Compass

C.Thermometer        D.Hygrometer

E.Barometer

viii).W hich of the following is not a process for chemical weathering?.

A.Carbonation    B.Saltation    C.Hydrolysis D.Hydration        C.Oxidation

ix).Which among the following features are produced by wave erosion?

A.Geo,wave cut platform and stack

B.Blow hole ,sea arch and levee

C.Sea arch ,beach and stump

D.Beach ,spit and bars

E.Tombolo,meander and cliff

x).If the scale of a map is 1:50,000 ,what will be the actual ground distance of a river with 18cm on a map?

A. 9 km    B. 2km    C.4km

D.18km    E.1km.

2. Match the items in List A with the responses in

List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

LIST A LIST B
i).Rocks formed when magma solidifies deep in the crust and can be exposed on the surface by agents of erosion.

ii).Rocks formed when molten magma cools and solidifies insides the rocks of the earth or on the surface of the earth.

iii) Rocks formed as a results of deposition and compaction of remains of dead plants and animals

iv).Rocks formed when different types of rocks are subjected to great heat and pressure.

v).Rocks formed when sediments are deposited either by water,wind or ice.

A.Crystalline rocks.

B.Igneous rocks.

C.Organic sedimentary rocks

D.Intrusive volcanic rocks

E.Extrusive volcanic rocks

F.Metamorphic rocks

G.Sedimentary rocks.

3.(a)Describe the following terms

(i) Distributaries

(ii) Lagoon

(iii) Levee.

(b).Delta is formed under different conditions .Outline three conditions necessary for its formation.

ANSWERS NECTA 2018

1.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix X
D A C A B E B B A A

2.

i ii iii iv v
A B C F G

3.(a) (i)Distributaries Are smallest river channels that tends to divide or branch off before entering a larger water body example a larger water body can be lake,sea or ocean. Distributaries are formed at the mouth or old stage of a river it is caused by deposition rocks materials at the mouth stage of river thus why it tends to divide so that is to say the distributaries has many mouth .

Diagram o f distributaries

(ii) Lagoon is an enclosed shallow salt water body which has separated from the sea by various factors, lagoons can be formed at cuspate foreland, atoll, dendritic drainage pattern barrier beach as well as where bay –bar is formed. Lagoon can be partially or completely enclosed.

Diagram

(iii) Levees is a ridge of sand which is deposited along the river banks. This is among the river deposition feature at the mouth stage of a river.

Diagram

(b)The English word ” delta” is derived from the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet which is pronounced “delta” this letter is triangle in shape ,so many deltas are triangular in shape that resembles to this letter. By definition delta is a low lying tract of alluvial deposits mainly formed at the mouth stage of a river. If formed in a sea is known as marine delta or a lacustrine delta.

The following are the conditions necessary for the formation of delta

i. There should be gentle slope or continental shelf along where the materials are deposited.

ii. There should be active erosion at the upper and middle stage of the river so as the sufficient load can be obtained for delta formation.

iii. Deposition activity should be faster than the removal action by waves.

iv. There must be flocculation process taking place, this is a process of binding together the soil nutrients

v. The speed or velocity of a river should be low as it enters a water body so that can deposits the load instead of carrying it into the sea.

vi. The river course should be free from obstacles so that all the transported load can reach to the river mouth.

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