Factors for Transition from Primitive Communalism to Slave Mode of Production
Factors for Transition from Primitive Communalism to Slave Mode of Production | The communal mode: This is the earliest mode of production in human history which characterized by communal ownership of the major means of production.
The communal model of production it featured by absence of exploitative of man by man. Under this mode of production people were powerless before the environment and depended on whatever nature gave them for food; such as insects, roots and tools involved were; stones, arrows
Transition from primitive communalism to slavery: was the period of transformation from the communal mode to the slavery mode.
FACTORS FOR TRANSITION FROM PRIMITIVE TO SLAVERY MODE
Advancement of science and technology: The discovery of iron technology has led to the improvement of productive forces which resulted in to division of labour and specialization and disintegration of communalism.
Emergence of social classes: The social classes was caused by division of labour and specialization due to population increase. Normally the social classes contributed to the emergence of slave Master class and slave class. Hence the shift from primitive communalism to slavery mode.
Population increase: This has led to the emergence of social classes and division of labour and specialization among the communal societies which resulted in to the disintegration of communalism and the emergence of slavery.
Emergence of system of exchange: Under this context the system of exchange refers to trading system. Therefore the trading activities has led to the emergence of social classes and the decline of communal system.
Development of state system: Due to social differentiation among the societies the strong class tried to form the state apparatus for defence purpose for the aim of protecting wealth among the rich class.
Emergence of division of labour and specialization: the division of labour and specialization was caused by the discovery of iron technology and the emergence of agriculture which has led to the emergence of social classes and resulted in to the decline of communalism.
Emergence of surplus production: Normally the emergence of surplus production created two different classes these were the rich and the poor.
THE SLAVE MODE OF PRODUCTION
Slave: Is a person who is owned by another person as an instrument of production. Slave master: is a person who own another person as an instrument of production.
Slavery: refers to a situation in a society where a person is owned by another purposely as an instrument of production.
Slavery mode of production: was the second mode of production which characterized by private ownership of the major means of production.
However, slave mode was the second mode in human history but also was the first exploitative mode of man by man. Under slavery system, slaves could not acquire wealthy and could not cultivate own land.
However, slavery in Africa never existed as an institution except in Egypt Muslim communities and on the coast of East Africa. Normally lave mode existed to some few parts of Africa as an institution and not as a mode of production these areas were.
In Zanzibar where by slavery existed after Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Muscat-Oman to Zanzibar in 1840, so slaves were taken from Central and East Africa to perform various activities or tasks in Zanzibar island like domestic activities such as cooking, mopping, fetching water, keeping gates (watch), taking care of elders and children and others offered labour in cloves and coconut plantations.
In Egypt; where by slaves were taken from western Sudan and forest areas to perform various activities during Pharaoh’s regime (Period)(rule), these activities were such as constructing canals, making calendar, building tombs, performing various domestic activities. Maghreb societies (Morocco,Tunisia and Algeria); slaves were taken from various parts of Western Africa And Northern East Africa to perform various activities in Maghreb societies, for example they were taken to offer their labour in Agriculture like palm dates and domestic activities.